1896 Solid Silver Antique Victoria Crown Coin Vintage 1st Olympics Paris 2024 UK • $157.39 (2024)

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Seller: lasvegasormonaco ✉️ (3,783) 99.6%, Location: Manchester, Take a look at my other items, GB, Ships to: WORLDWIDE, Item: 266874577177 1896 Solid Silver Antique Victoria Crown Coin Vintage 1st Olympics Paris 2024 UK. Queen Victoria Solid Silver Crown 1896 was the year the first Modern Olympics were Held This is a 1896 Victorian Crown which features the Robed Jubilee bust portrait of mature Queen Victoria facing left, adorned with jewellery, veil, and a small crown as designed by Joseph Edgar Boehm The obverse, with the reverse design depicting the famed St George, the paton saint of England and the Dragon by Benedetto Pistrucci. The Victoria Jubilee Head obverse design was adopted from 1887 for silver and gold coins only, and was continued until the old head portrait was introduced in 1893. It was the second major portrait type of Victoria's reign, and was introduced for the golden jubilee (50 years) of Queen Victoria's reign. She acceded to the throne in 1837. The Obverse reads 'VICTORIA D:G: BRITT:REG:F:D:'. Monarch - Victoria (1837 - 1901) Edge - reeded Weight - 28.35 g Diameter - 38.6 mm Composition - 92.5% silver Minted - London, England Mintage - approx. 1,807,223 (inc varieties) A wonderful item for anyone who loves the Royal Family It would be a super addition to any collection, excellent display, practical piece or authentic period prop. This once belonged to my Grand Mother and she kept in a display cabinet for many years, but when she died it was placed in a box for storage. "e have decided to sell some of her items to raise money for a Memorial Bench with a plaque Where we can sit and remember her on Summer Days I hope it will find a good home In Very good condition for over 126 Years Old Comes from a pet and smoke free home Sorry about the poor quality photos. They don't do the plate justice which looks a lot better in real life Like all my Auctions Bidding starts a a penny with no reserve... if your the only bidder you win it for 1p...Grab a Bargain! Click Here to Check out my Other Antique Items & Coins Bid with Confidence - Check My 100% Positive Feedback from over 1,000 Satisfied Customers I have over 10 years of Ebay Selling Experience - So Why Not Treat Yourself? I have got married recently and need to raise funds to meet the costs also we are planning to move into a house together I always combined postage on multiple items Instant Feedback Automatically Left Immediately after Receiving Payment All Items Sent out within 24 hours of Receiving Payment. Overseas Bidders Please Note Surface Mail Delivery Times > Western Europe takes up to 2 weeks, Eastern Europe up to 5 weeks, North America up to 6 weeks, South America, Africa and Asia up to 8 weeks and Australasia up to 12 weeks Thanks for Looking and Best of Luck with the Bidding!! 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City, Madrid, Tianjin, Kuala Lumpur, Toronto, Milan, Shenyang, Dallas, Fort Worth, Boston, Belo Horizonte, Khartoum, Riyadh, Singapore, Washington, Detroit, Barcelona,, Houston, Athens, Berlin, Sydney, Atlanta, Guadalajara, San Francisco, Oakland, Montreal, Monterey, Melbourne, Ankara, Recife, Phoenix/Mesa, Durban, Porto Alegre, Dalian, Jeddah, Seattle, Cape Town, San Diego, Fortaleza, Curitiba, Rome, Naples, Minneapolis, St. Paul, Tel Aviv, Birmingham, Frankfurt, Lisbon, Manchester, San Juan, Katowice, Tashkent, f*ckuoka, Baku, Sumqayit, St. Louis, Baltimore, Sapporo, Tampa, St. Petersburg, Taichung, Warsaw, Denver, Cologne, Bonn, Hamburg, Dubai, Pretoria, Vancouver, Beirut, Budapest, Cleveland, Pittsburgh, Campinas, Harare, Brasilia, Kuwait, Munich, Portland, Brussels, Vienna, San Jose, Damman , Copenhagen, Brisbane, Riverside, San Bernardino, Cincinnati and Accra Crown (British coin) One crown Great Britain United Kingdom Value 5/— (25p in decimal currency) £5 (commemorative coins from 1990 and later) Diameter 38 mm Edge Milled Composition (1816–1919) 92.5% Ag (1920–1946) 50% Ag (1947–1970) Cupronickel Years of minting 1707–1981 Obverse Obverse of the crown of 1891, Great Britain, Victoria.jpg Design Profile of the monarch (Victoria "jubilee head" design shown) Designer Joseph Boehm Design date 1887 Reverse Reverse crown 1891, Great Britain, Victoria.jpg Design Various (St George design shown) Designer Benedetto Pistrucci Design date 1817 The British crown was a denomination of sterling coinage worth 1 / 4 of one pound, or 5 shillings, or 60 (old) pence. The crown was first issued during the reign of Edward VI, as part of the coinage of the Kingdom of England. Always a heavy silver coin weighing around one ounce, during the 19th and 20th centuries the crown declined from being a real means of exchange to being a coin rarely spent, and minted for commemorative purposes only. Unlike in some territories of the British Empire (such as Jamaica), in the UK the crown was never replaced as circulating currency by a five-shilling banknote. "Decimal" crowns were minted a few times after decimalisation of the British currency in 1971, initially with a nominal value of 25 (new) pence. However, commemorative crowns issued since 1990 have a face value of five pounds.[1] History The coin's origins lie in the English silver crown, one of many silver coins that appeared in various countries from the 16th century onwards (most famously the Spanish piece of eight), all of similar size and weight (approx 38mm diameter, 25g fine silver) and thus interchangeable in international trade. The Kingdom of England also minted gold Crowns until early in the reign of Charles II.[2] The dies for all gold and silver coins of Queen Anne and King George I were engraved by John Croker, a migrant originally from Dresden in the Duchy of Saxony.[3] The British silver crown was always a large coin, and from the 19th century it did not circulate well. However, crowns were usually struck in a new monarch's coronation year, from George IV through Elizabeth II in 1953, with the exceptions of George V and Edward VIII. "Gothic" crown of Queen Victoria (1847). The coin had a mintage of just 8,000 and was produced to celebrate the Gothic revival The King George V "wreath" crowns struck from 1927 through 1936 (excluding 1935 when the more common "rocking horse" crown was minted to commemorate the King's Silver Jubilee) depict a wreath on the reverse of the coin and were struck in very low numbers. Generally struck late in the year and intended to be purchased as Christmas gifts, they were generally kept rather than circulated. The 1927 "wreath" crowns were struck as proofs only (15,030 minted) and the 1934 coin had a mintage of just 932.[citation needed] With their large size, many of the later coins were primarily commemoratives. The 1951 issue was for the Festival of Britain, and was only struck in proof condition. The 1953 crown was issued to celebrate the Coronation of Queen Elizabeth II, while the 1960 issue (which carried the same reverse design as the previous crown in 1953) commemorated the British Exhibition in New York. The 1965 issue carried the image of Winston Churchill on the reverse. According to the Standard Catalogue of coins, 19,640,000 of this coin were minted, although intended as collectable pieces the large mintage and lack of precious metal content means these coins are effectively worthless today.[4] Production of the Churchill crown began on 11 October 1965, and stopped in the summer of 1966. The crown coin was nicknamed the dollar, but is not to be confused with the British trade dollar that circulated in the Orient. In 2014, a new world record price was achieved for a milled silver crown. The coin was unique, issued as a pattern by engraver Thomas Simon in 1663 and nicknamed the "Reddite Crown". It was presented to Charles II as the new crown piece, but ultimately rejected in favour of the Roettiers Brothers' design. Auctioneers Spink & Son of London sold the coin on 27 March 2014 for £396,000 including commission.[5] All pre-decimal crowns from 1818 on remain legal tender with a face value of 25p.[6] Decimal crowns Main articles: British twenty-five pence coin and Five pounds (British coin) After decimalisation on 15 February 1971, the 25-pence coin was introduced as a replacement for the crown as a commemorative coin. These were legal tender[6] and were made with large mintages. Further issues continued to be minted, initially with a value of twenty-five pence (with no face value shown). From 1990, the face value of new crown coins was raised to five pounds.[1] Preceded by English crown Crown 1707–1965 Succeeded by Twenty–five pence Changing values The legal tender value of the crown remained as five shillings from 1544 to 1965. However, for most of this period there was no denominational designation or "face value" mark of value displayed on the coin. From 1927 to 1939, the word "CROWN" appears, and from 1951 to 1960 this was changed to "FIVE SHILLINGS". Coins minted since 1818 remain legal tender with a face value of 25 pence. Although all "normal" issues since 1951 have been composed of cupro-nickel, special proof versions have been produced for sale to collectors, and as gift items, in silver, gold, and occasionally platinum. The fact that gold £5 crowns are now produced means that there are two different strains of five pound gold coins, namely crowns and what are now termed "quintuple sovereigns" for want of a more concise term.[7][8] Numismatically, the term "crown-sized" is used generically to describe large silver or cupro-nickel coins of about 40 mm in diameter. Most Commonwealth countries still issue crown-sized coins for sale to collectors. New Zealand's original fifty-cent pieces, and Australia's previously round but now dodecagonal fifty-cent piece, although valued at five shillings in predecimal accounting, are all smaller than the standard silver crown pieces issued by those countries (and the UK). They were in fact similarly sized to the predecimal half crown (worth two shillings and sixpence). Composition For silver crowns, the grade of silver adhered to the long-standing standard (established in the 12th century by Henry II) – the Sterling Silver standard of 92.5% silver and 7.5% copper. This was a harder-wearing alloy, yet it was still a rather high grade of silver. It went some way towards discouraging the practice of "clipping", though this practice was further discouraged and largely eliminated with the introduction of the milled edge seen on coins today. In a debasem*nt process which took effect in 1920, the silver content of all British coins was reduced from 92.5% to 50%, with a portion of the remainder consisting of manganese, which caused the coins to tarnish to a very dark colour after they had been in circulation for a significant period. Silver was eliminated altogether in 1947, with the move to a composition of cupro-nickel – except for proof issues, which returned to the pre-1920 92.5% silver composition. Since the Great Recoinage of 1816, a crown has, as a general rule, had a diameter of 38.61 millimetres (1.520 in), and weighed 28.276 grams (defined as 10⁄11 troy ounce).[9][10] Modern mintages Monarch Year Number minted Detail Composition* Edward VII As 5/- (60d - quarter sovereign) 1902 256,020 Coronation 0.925 silver George V 1927 15,030 (proof only) 'Wreath' Crown 0.500 silver 1928 9,034 'Wreath' Crown 0.500 silver 1929 4,994 'Wreath' Crown 0.500 silver 1930 4,847 'Wreath' Crown 0.500 silver 1931 4,056 'Wreath' Crown 0.500 silver 1932 2,395 'Wreath' Crown 0.500 silver 1933 7,132 'Wreath' Crown 0.500 silver 1934 932 'Wreath' Crown 0.500 silver 1935 714,769 George V and Queen Mary Silver Jubilee 0.500 silver 1936 2,473 'Wreath' Crown 0.500 silver George VI 1937 418,699 Coronation 0.500 silver 1951 1,983,540 Festival of Britain Cu/Ni Elizabeth II 1953 5,962,621 Coronation Cu/Ni 1960 1,024,038 British Exhibition in New York Cu/Ni 1965 19,640,000 Death of Sir Winston Churchill Cu/Ni As 25p (quarter sovereign) 1972 7,452,100 Queen Elizabeth II 25th Wedding Anniversary 25p Cu/Ni 1977 37,061,160 Queen Elizabeth II Silver Jubilee Cu/Ni 1980 9,306,000 Queen Mother 80th Birthday Cu/Ni 1981 26,773,600 Charles & Diana Wedding Cu/Ni For crowns minted from 1990, which have a value of £5, see here. The specifications for composition refer to the standard circulation versions. Proof versions continue to be minted in Sterling silver. Gallery Quarter sovereign In 1853, the Royal Mint had produced two patterns for a gold 5-shilling coin for circulation use, one denominated as five shillings and the other as a quarter sovereign, but this coin never went into production, in part due to concerns about the small size of the coin and likely wear in circulation.[11] The quarter sovereign was introduced in 2009 as a bullion coin. References icon Money portal Numismatics portal flag United Kingdom portal "The Royal Mint: Five Pound Coin Designs and Specifications". The Royal Mint. Retrieved 10 July 2015. "Crown". Royal Mint Museum. Retrieved 17 July 2022. In 1551 Edward VI issued a large silver coin of the value of five shillings and as its currency value was the same as that of the gold crown it took its name from that coin. Both gold and silver crowns continued to be struck concurrently until early in the reign of Charles II, when minting of the gold crown ceased. Warwick William Wroth, 'Croker, John (1670-1741)' in Dictionary of National Biography, 1885-1900, vol. 13 "How Much is a 1965 Winston Churchill Coin Worth?". churchillcentral.com. 17 April 2019. Retrieved 4 July 2022. "Spink sets new world record for an English silver coin, 27 March 2014". Spink Auctioneers. Archived from the original on 2 April 2014. Retrieved 27 March 2014. "How can I dispose of commemorative crowns? And why do some have a higher face value than others?". The Royal Mint Museum. Archived from the original on 13 April 2020. Retrieved 22 November 2019. "Quintuple Sovereigns - Five Pound Gold Coins". taxfreegold.co.uk. Retrieved 23 June 2017. "British Gold Proof Commemorative Crowns". taxfreegold.co.uk. Retrieved 23 June 2017. Specifications of British Pre-decimal Coins Kindleberger, Charles P. (2005). A Financial History of Western Europe. Taylor & Francis. p. 60. ISBN 9780415378673. OnlineCoinClub Quarter Sovereign pre-decimal External links Wikimedia Commons has media related to Crown (British coin). History of Five Shilling Coins on Coins of the UK Royal Mint Museum's history of Crown Coin Crown, Coin Type from United Kingdom - Online Coin Club vte Currency units named crown or similar Circulating Czech korunaDanish kroneFaroese krónaIcelandic krónaNorwegian kroneSwedish krona Defunct Austrian kroneAustrian Netherlands kronenthalerAustro-Hungarian crownBohemian and Moravian korunaCzechoslovak korunaEstonian kroonFiume kroneHungarian koronaLiechtenstein kroneSlovak korunaSlovak koruna (1939–1945)Yugoslav krone Proposed Greenlandic koruuni As a denomination British crownEnglish crownKronenthaler vte Sterling coinage Decimal 1 / 2 p1p2p5p10p20p50p£1£2 Pre-decimal Quarter farthing ( 1 / 16 d) (British Ceylon)Third farthing ( 1 / 12 d) (Crown Colony of Malta)Half farthing ( 1 / 8 d)Farthing ( 1 / 4 d)Halfpenny ( 1 / 2 d)Penny (1d)Three halfpence (1+ 1 / 2 d) (British Ceylon & British West Indies)Twopence (2d)Threepence (3d)Fourpence (4d)Sixpence (6d)Shilling (1/–)Fifteen pence (1/3d) (Australia)Eighteen Pence(1/6d) (British Ireland)Florin (2/–)Half crown (2/6d)Thirty Pence(2/6d) (British Ireland)Double florin (4/–)Crown (5/–)Six Shillings (6/-) (British Ireland)Quarter guinea (5/3d)Third guinea (7/–)Half sovereign (10/–)Half guinea (10/6d)Sovereign (£1)Guinea (£1/1/–)Double sovereign (£2)Two guineas (£2/2/–)Five pounds (£5)Five guineas (£5/5/–) Commemorative 3p (Tristan Da Cunha)6p25p60p (Isle of Man)70p (Ascension Island)£5£10£20£25£50£100£200£500£1000Maundy money Bullion BritanniaQuarter sovereignHalf sovereignSovereignDouble sovereignQuintuple sovereignLunarThe Queen's BeastsLandmarks of Britain See also SterlingSterling banknotesList of British banknotes and coinsList of British currenciesJubilee coinageOld Head coinageScottish coinageCoins of IrelandList of people on coins of the United Kingdom Categories: Crown (currency)Coins of Great BritainCoins of the United KingdomQuarter-base-unit coins Queen Victoria Victoria Photograph of Queen Victoria, 1882 Photograph by Alexander Bassano, 1882 Queen of the United Kingdom (more ...) Reign 20 June 1837 – 22 January 1901 Coronation 28 June 1838 Predecessor William IV Successor Edward VII Empress of India Reign 1 May 1876 – 22 January 1901 Imperial Durbar 1 January 1877 Successor Edward VII Born Princess Alexandrina Victoria of Kent 24 May 1819 Kensington Palace, London, England Died 22 January 1901 (aged 81) Osborne House, Isle of Wight, England Burial 4 February 1901 Royal Mausoleum, Frogmore, Windsor Spouse Prince Albert of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha (m. 1840; died 1861) Issue Victoria, German Empress Edward VII, King of the United Kingdom Alice, Grand duch*ess of Hesse and by Rhine Alfred, Duke of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha Helena, Princess Christian of Schleswig-Holstein Princess Louise, duch*ess of Argyll Prince Arthur, Duke of Connaught and Strathearn Prince Leopold, Duke of Albany Beatrice, Princess Henry of Battenberg House Hanover Father Prince Edward, Duke of Kent and Strathearn Mother Princess Victoria of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld Signature Victoria's signature Victoria (Alexandrina Victoria; 24 May 1819 – 22 January 1901) was Queen of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland from 20 June 1837 until her death in 1901. Known as the Victorian era, her reign of 63 years and seven months was longer than any previous British monarch. It was a period of industrial, political, scientific, and military change within the United Kingdom, and was marked by a great expansion of the British Empire. In 1876, the British Parliament voted to grant her the additional title of Empress of India. Victoria was the daughter of Prince Edward, Duke of Kent and Strathearn (the fourth son of King George III), and Princess Victoria of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld. After the deaths of her father and grandfather in 1820, she was raised under close supervision by her mother and her comptroller, John Conroy. She inherited the throne aged 18 after her father's three elder brothers died without surviving legitimate issue. Victoria, a constitutional monarch, attempted privately to influence government policy and ministerial appointments; publicly, she became a national icon who was identified with strict standards of personal morality. Victoria married her first cousin, Prince Albert of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha, in 1840. Their children married into royal and noble families across the continent, earning Victoria the sobriquet "the grandmother of Europe" and spreading haemophilia in European royalty. After Albert's death in 1861, Victoria plunged into deep mourning and avoided public appearances. As a result of her seclusion, British republicanism temporarily gained strength, but in the latter half of her reign, her popularity recovered. Her Golden and Diamond jubilees were times of public celebration. She died on the Isle of Wight in 1901. The last British monarch of the House of Hanover, she was succeeded by her son Edward VII of the House of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha. Birth and family Portrait of Victoria at age 4 Victoria at the age of four, by Stephen Poyntz Denning, 1823 Victoria's father was Prince Edward, Duke of Kent and Strathearn, the fourth son of the reigning King of the United Kingdom, George III. Until 1817, Edward's niece, Princess Charlotte of Wales, was the only legitimate grandchild of George III. Her death in 1817 precipitated a succession crisis that brought pressure on the Duke of Kent and his unmarried brothers to marry and have children. In 1818 he married Princess Victoria of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld, a widowed German princess with two children—Carl (1804–1856) and Feodora (1807–1872)—by her first marriage to Emich Carl, 2nd Prince of Leiningen. Her brother Leopold was Princess Charlotte's widower and later the first king of Belgium. The Duke and duch*ess of Kent's only child, Victoria, was born at 4:15 a.m. on 24 May 1819 at Kensington Palace in London.[1] Victoria was christened privately by the Archbishop of Canterbury, Charles Manners-Sutton, on 24 June 1819 in the Cupola Room at Kensington Palace.[a] She was baptised Alexandrina after one of her godparents, Tsar Alexander I of Russia, and Victoria, after her mother. Additional names proposed by her parents—Georgina (or Georgiana), Charlotte, and Augusta—were dropped on the instructions of Kent's eldest brother George, Prince Regent.[2] At birth, Victoria was fifth in the line of succession after the four eldest sons of George III: the Prince Regent (later George IV); Frederick, Duke of York; William, Duke of Clarence (later William IV); and Victoria's father, Edward, Duke of Kent.[3] The Prince Regent had no surviving children, and the Duke of York had no children; further, both were estranged from their wives, who were both past child-bearing age, so the two eldest brothers were unlikely to have any further legitimate children. William and Edward married on the same day in 1818, but both of William's legitimate daughters died as infants. The first of these was Princess Charlotte, who was born and died on 27 March 1819, two months before Victoria was born. Victoria's father died in January 1820, when Victoria was less than a year old. A week later her grandfather died and was succeeded by his eldest son as George IV. Victoria was then third in line to the throne after Frederick and William. William's second daughter, Princess Elizabeth of Clarence, lived for twelve weeks from 10 December 1820 to 4 March 1821, and for that period Victoria was fourth in line.[4] The Duke of York died in 1827, followed by George IV in 1830; the throne passed to their next surviving brother, William, and Victoria became heir presumptive. The Regency Act 1830 made special provision for Victoria's mother to act as regent in case William died while Victoria was still a minor.[5] King William distrusted the duch*ess's capacity to be regent, and in 1836 he declared in her presence that he wanted to live until Victoria's 18th birthday, so that a regency could be avoided.[6] Heir presumptive Portrait of Victoria with her spaniel Dash by George Hayter, 1833 Victoria later described her childhood as "rather melancholy".[7] Her mother was extremely protective, and Victoria was raised largely isolated from other children under the so-called "Kensington System", an elaborate set of rules and protocols devised by the duch*ess and her ambitious and domineering comptroller, Sir John Conroy, who was rumoured to be the duch*ess's lover.[8] The system prevented the princess from meeting people whom her mother and Conroy deemed undesirable (including most of her father's family), and was designed to render her weak and dependent upon them.[9] The duch*ess avoided the court because she was scandalised by the presence of King William's illegitimate children.[10] Victoria shared a bedroom with her mother every night, studied with private tutors to a regular timetable, and spent her play-hours with her dolls and her King Charles Spaniel, Dash.[11] Her lessons included French, German, Italian, and Latin,[12] but she spoke only English at home.[13] Victoria's sketch of herself Self-portrait, 1835 In 1830, the duch*ess of Kent and Conroy took Victoria across the centre of England to visit the Malvern Hills, stopping at towns and great country houses along the way.[14] Similar journeys to other parts of England and Wales were taken in 1832, 1833, 1834 and 1835. To the King's annoyance, Victoria was enthusiastically welcomed in each of the stops.[15] William compared the journeys to royal progresses and was concerned that they portrayed Victoria as his rival rather than his heir presumptive.[16] Victoria disliked the trips; the constant round of public appearances made her tired and ill, and there was little time for her to rest.[17] She objected on the grounds of the King's disapproval, but her mother dismissed his complaints as motivated by jealousy and forced Victoria to continue the tours.[18] At Ramsgate in October 1835, Victoria contracted a severe fever, which Conroy initially dismissed as a childish pretence.[19] While Victoria was ill, Conroy and the duch*ess unsuccessfully badgered her to make Conroy her private secretary.[20] As a teenager, Victoria resisted persistent attempts by her mother and Conroy to appoint him to her staff.[21] Once queen, she banned him from her presence, but he remained in her mother's household.[22] By 1836, Victoria's maternal uncle Leopold, who had been King of the Belgians since 1831, hoped to marry her to Prince Albert,[23] the son of his brother Ernest I, Duke of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha. Leopold arranged for Victoria's mother to invite her Coburg relatives to visit her in May 1836, with the purpose of introducing Victoria to Albert.[24] William IV, however, disapproved of any match with the Coburgs, and instead favoured the suit of Prince Alexander of the Netherlands, second son of the Prince of Orange.[25] Victoria was aware of the various matrimonial plans and critically appraised a parade of eligible princes.[26] According to her diary, she enjoyed Albert's company from the beginning. After the visit she wrote, "[Albert] is extremely handsome; his hair is about the same colour as mine; his eyes are large and blue, and he has a beautiful nose and a very sweet mouth with fine teeth; but the charm of his countenance is his expression, which is most delightful."[27] Alexander, on the other hand, she described as "very plain".[28] Victoria wrote to King Leopold, whom she considered her "best and kindest adviser",[29] to thank him "for the prospect of great happiness you have contributed to give me, in the person of dear Albert ... He possesses every quality that could be desired to render me perfectly happy. He is so sensible, so kind, and so good, and so amiable too. He has besides the most pleasing and delightful exterior and appearance you can possibly see."[30] However at 17, Victoria, though interested in Albert, was not yet ready to marry. The parties did not undertake a formal engagement, but assumed that the match would take place in due time.[31] Early reign Accession Drawing of two men on their knees in front of Victoria Victoria receives the news of her accession from Lord Conyngham (left) and the Archbishop of Canterbury. Painting by Henry Tanworth Wells, 1887. Victoria turned 18 on 24 May 1837, and a regency was avoided. Less than a month later, on 20 June 1837, William IV died at the age of 71, and Victoria became Queen of the United Kingdom.[b] In her diary she wrote, "I was awoke at 6 o'clock by Mamma, who told me the Archbishop of Canterbury and Lord Conyngham were here and wished to see me. I got out of bed and went into my sitting-room (only in my dressing gown) and alone, and saw them. Lord Conyngham then acquainted me that my poor Uncle, the King, was no more, and had expired at 12 minutes past 2 this morning, and consequently that I am Queen."[32] Official documents prepared on the first day of her reign described her as Alexandrina Victoria, but the first name was withdrawn at her own wish and not used again.[33] Since 1714, Britain had shared a monarch with Hanover in Germany, but under Salic law, women were excluded from the Hanoverian succession. While Victoria inherited the British throne, her father's unpopular younger brother, Ernest Augustus, Duke of Cumberland, became King of Hanover. He was Victoria's heir presumptive until she had a child.[34] Coronation portrait by George Hayter At the time of Victoria's accession, the government was led by the Whig prime minister Lord Melbourne. He at once became a powerful influence on the politically inexperienced monarch, who relied on him for advice.[35] Charles Greville supposed that the widowed and childless Melbourne was "passionately fond of her as he might be of his daughter if he had one", and Victoria probably saw him as a father figure.[36] Her coronation took place on 28 June 1838 at Westminster Abbey. Over 400,000 visitors came to London for the celebrations.[37] She became the first sovereign to take up residence at Buckingham Palace[38] and inherited the revenues of the duchies of Lancaster and Cornwall as well as being granted a civil list allowance of £385,000 per year. Financially prudent, she paid off her father's debts.[39] At the start of her reign Victoria was popular,[40] but her reputation suffered in an 1839 court intrigue when one of her mother's ladies-in-waiting, Lady Flora Hastings, developed an abdominal growth that was widely rumoured to be an out-of-wedlock pregnancy by Sir John Conroy.[41] Victoria believed the rumours.[42] She hated Conroy, and despised "that odious Lady Flora",[43] because she had conspired with Conroy and the duch*ess of Kent in the Kensington System.[44] At first, Lady Flora refused to submit to an intimate medical examination, until in mid-February she eventually acquiesced, and was found to be a virgin.[45] Conroy, the Hastings family, and the opposition Tories organised a press campaign implicating the Queen in the spreading of false rumours about Lady Flora.[46] When Lady Flora died in July, the post-mortem revealed a large tumour on her liver that had distended her abdomen.[47] At public appearances, Victoria was hissed and jeered as "Mrs. Melbourne".[48] In 1839, Melbourne resigned after Radicals and Tories (both of whom Victoria detested) voted against a bill to suspend the constitution of Jamaica. The bill removed political power from plantation owners who were resisting measures associated with the abolition of slavery.[49] The Queen commissioned a Tory, Robert Peel, to form a new ministry. At the time, it was customary for the prime minister to appoint members of the Royal Household, who were usually his political allies and their spouses. Many of the Queen's ladies of the bedchamber were wives of Whigs, and Peel expected to replace them with wives of Tories. In what became known as the "bedchamber crisis", Victoria, advised by Melbourne, objected to their removal. Peel refused to govern under the restrictions imposed by the Queen, and consequently resigned his commission, allowing Melbourne to return to office.[50] Marriage See also: Wedding of Queen Victoria and Prince Albert of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha and Wedding dress of Queen Victoria Painting of a lavish wedding attended by richly dressed people in a magnificent room Marriage of Victoria and Albert, painted by George Hayter Though Victoria was now queen, as an unmarried young woman she was required by social convention to live with her mother, despite their differences over the Kensington System and her mother's continued reliance on Conroy.[51] Her mother was consigned to a remote apartment in Buckingham Palace, and Victoria often refused to see her.[52] When Victoria complained to Melbourne that her mother's proximity promised "torment for many years", Melbourne sympathised but said it could be avoided by marriage, which Victoria called a "schocking [sic] alternative".[53] Victoria showed interest in Albert's education for the future role he would have to play as her husband, but she resisted attempts to rush her into wedlock.[54] Victoria continued to praise Albert following his second visit in October 1839. Albert and Victoria felt mutual affection and the Queen proposed to him on 15 October 1839, just five days after he had arrived at Windsor.[55] They were married on 10 February 1840, in the Chapel Royal of St James's Palace, London. Victoria was love-struck. She spent the evening after their wedding lying down with a headache, but wrote ecstatically in her diary: I NEVER, NEVER spent such an evening!!! MY DEAREST DEAREST DEAR Albert ... his excessive love & affection gave me feelings of heavenly love & happiness I never could have hoped to have felt before! He clasped me in his arms, & we kissed each other again & again! His beauty, his sweetness & gentleness – really how can I ever be thankful enough to have such a Husband! ... to be called by names of tenderness, I have never yet heard used to me before – was bliss beyond belief! Oh! This was the happiest day of my life![56] Albert became an important political adviser as well as the Queen's companion, replacing Melbourne as the dominant influential figure in the first half of her life.[57] Victoria's mother was evicted from the palace, to Ingestre House in Belgrave Square. After the death of Victoria's aunt, Princess Augusta, in 1840, Victoria's mother was given both Clarence and Frogmore Houses.[58] Through Albert's mediation, relations between mother and daughter slowly improved.[59] Contemporary lithograph of Edward Oxford's attempt to assassinate Victoria, 1840 During Victoria's first pregnancy in 1840, in the first few months of the marriage, 18-year-old Edward Oxford attempted to assassinate her while she was riding in a carriage with Prince Albert on her way to visit her mother. Oxford fired twice, but either both bullets missed or, as he later claimed, the guns had no shot.[60] He was tried for high treason, found not guilty by reason of insanity, committed to an insane asylum indefinitely, and later sent to live in Australia.[61] In the immediate aftermath of the attack, Victoria's popularity soared, mitigating residual discontent over the Hastings affair and the bedchamber crisis.[62] Her daughter, also named Victoria, was born on 21 November 1840. The Queen hated being pregnant,[63] viewed breast-feeding with disgust,[64] and thought newborn babies were ugly.[65] Nevertheless, over the following seventeen years, she and Albert had a further eight children: Albert Edward (b. 1841), Alice (b. 1843), Alfred (b. 1844), Helena (b. 1846), Louise (b. 1848), Arthur (b. 1850), Leopold (b. 1853) and Beatrice (b. 1857). The household was largely run by Victoria's childhood governess, Baroness Louise Lehzen from Hanover. Lehzen had been a formative influence on Victoria[66] and had supported her against the Kensington System.[67] Albert, however, thought that Lehzen was incompetent and that her mismanagement threatened his daughter's health. After a furious row between Victoria and Albert over the issue, Lehzen was pensioned off in 1842, and Victoria's close relationship with her ended.[68] Married reign Portrait by Franz Xaver Winterhalter, 1843 On 29 May 1842, Victoria was riding in a carriage along The Mall, London, when John Francis aimed a pistol at her, but the gun did not fire. The assailant escaped; the following day, Victoria drove the same route, though faster and with a greater escort, in a deliberate attempt to bait Francis into taking a second aim and catch him in the act. As expected, Francis shot at her, but he was seized by plainclothes policemen, and convicted of high treason. On 3 July, two days after Francis's death sentence was commuted to transportation for life, John William Bean also tried to fire a pistol at the Queen, but it was loaded only with paper and tobacco and had too little charge.[69] Edward Oxford felt that the attempts were encouraged by his acquittal in 1840. Bean was sentenced to 18 months in jail.[70] In a similar attack in 1849, unemployed Irishman William Hamilton fired a powder-filled pistol at Victoria's carriage as it passed along Constitution Hill, London.[71] In 1850, the Queen did sustain injury when she was assaulted by a possibly insane ex-army officer, Robert Pate. As Victoria was riding in a carriage, Pate struck her with his cane, crushing her bonnet and bruising her forehead. Both Hamilton and Pate were sentenced to seven years' transportation.[72] Melbourne's support in the House of Commons weakened through the early years of Victoria's reign, and in the 1841 general election the Whigs were defeated. Peel became prime minister, and the ladies of the bedchamber most associated with the Whigs were replaced.[73] Victoria cuddling a child next to her Earliest known photograph of Victoria, here with her eldest daughter, c. 1845[74] In 1845, Ireland was hit by a potato blight.[75] In the next four years, over a million Irish people died and another million emigrated in what became known as the Great Famine.[76] In Ireland, Victoria was labelled "The Famine Queen".[77][78] In January 1847 she personally donated £2,000 (equivalent to between £178,000 and £6.5 million in 2016[79]) to the British Relief Association, more than any other individual famine relief donor,[80] and also supported the Maynooth Grant to a Roman Catholic seminary in Ireland, despite Protestant opposition.[81] The story that she donated only £5 in aid to the Irish, and on the same day gave the same amount to Battersea Dogs Home, was a myth generated towards the end of the 19th century.[82] By 1846, Peel's ministry faced a crisis involving the repeal of the Corn Laws. Many Tories—by then known also as Conservatives—were opposed to the repeal, but Peel, some Tories (the free-trade oriented liberal conservative "Peelites"), most Whigs and Victoria supported it. Peel resigned in 1846, after the repeal narrowly passed, and was replaced by Lord John Russell.[83] Victoria's British prime ministers Year Prime Minister (party) 1835 Viscount Melbourne (Whig) 1841 Sir Robert Peel (Conservative) 1846 Lord John Russell (W) 1852 (Feb) Earl of Derby (C) 1852 (Dec) Earl of Aberdeen (Peelite) 1855 Viscount Palmerston (Liberal) 1858 Earl of Derby (C) 1859 Viscount Palmerston (L) 1865 Earl Russell [Lord John Russell] (L) 1866 Earl of Derby (C) 1868 (Feb) Benjamin Disraeli (C) 1868 (Dec) William Gladstone (L) 1874 Benjamin Disraeli [Ld Beaconsfield] (C) 1880 William Gladstone (L) 1885 Marquess of Salisbury (C) 1886 (Feb) William Gladstone (L) 1886 (Jul) Marquess of Salisbury (C) 1892 William Gladstone (L) 1894 Earl of Rosebery (L) 1895 Marquess of Salisbury (C) See List of prime ministers of Queen Victoria for details of her British and Imperial premiers Internationally, Victoria took a keen interest in the improvement of relations between France and Britain.[84] She made and hosted several visits between the British royal family and the House of Orleans, who were related by marriage through the Coburgs. In 1843 and 1845, she and Albert stayed with King Louis Philippe I at Château d'Eu in Normandy; she was the first British or English monarch to visit a French monarch since the meeting of Henry VIII of England and Francis I of France on the Field of the Cloth of Gold in 1520.[85] When Louis Philippe made a reciprocal trip in 1844, he became the first French king to visit a British sovereign.[86] Louis Philippe was deposed in the revolutions of 1848, and fled to exile in England.[87] At the height of a revolutionary scare in the United Kingdom in April 1848, Victoria and her family left London for the greater safety of Osborne House,[88] a private estate on the Isle of Wight that they had purchased in 1845 and redeveloped.[89] Demonstrations by Chartists and Irish nationalists failed to attract widespread support, and the scare died down without any major disturbances.[90] Victoria's first visit to Ireland in 1849 was a public relations success, but it had no lasting impact or effect on the growth of Irish nationalism.[91] Portrait of the young Queen by Herbert Smith, 1848 Russell's ministry, though Whig, was not favoured by the Queen.[92] She found particularly offensive the Foreign Secretary, Lord Palmerston, who often acted without consulting the Cabinet, the Prime Minister, or the Queen.[93] Victoria complained to Russell that Palmerston sent official dispatches to foreign leaders without her knowledge, but Palmerston was retained in office and continued to act on his own initiative, despite her repeated remonstrances. It was only in 1851 that Palmerston was removed after he announced the British government's approval of President Louis-Napoleon Bonaparte's coup in France without consulting the Prime Minister.[94] The following year, President Bonaparte was declared Emperor Napoleon III, by which time Russell's administration had been replaced by a short-lived minority government led by Lord Derby. Photograph of a seated Victoria, dressed in black, holding an infant with her children and Prince Albert standing around her Albert, Victoria and their nine children, 1857. Left to right: Alice, Arthur, Prince Albert, Albert Edward, Leopold, Louise, Queen Victoria with Beatrice, Alfred, Victoria, and Helena. In 1853, Victoria gave birth to her eighth child, Leopold, with the aid of the new anaesthetic, chloroform. She was so impressed by the relief it gave from the pain of childbirth that she used it again in 1857 at the birth of her ninth and final child, Beatrice, despite opposition from members of the clergy, who considered it against biblical teaching, and members of the medical profession, who thought it dangerous.[95] Victoria may have had postnatal depression after many of her pregnancies.[96] Letters from Albert to Victoria intermittently complain of her loss of self-control. For example, about a month after Leopold's birth Albert complained in a letter to Victoria about her "continuance of hysterics" over a "miserable trifle".[97] In early 1855, the government of Lord Aberdeen, who had replaced Derby, fell amidst recriminations over the poor management of British troops in the Crimean War. Victoria approached both Derby and Russell to form a ministry, but neither had sufficient support, and Victoria was forced to appoint Palmerston as prime minister.[98] Napoleon III, Britain's closest ally as a result of the Crimean War,[96] visited London in April 1855, and from 17 to 28 August the same year Victoria and Albert returned the visit.[99] Napoleon III met the couple at Boulogne and accompanied them to Paris.[100] They visited the Exposition Universelle (a successor to Albert's 1851 brainchild the Great Exhibition) and Napoleon I's tomb at Les Invalides (to which his remains had only been returned in 1840), and were guests of honour at a 1,200-guest ball at the Palace of Versailles.[101] Portrait by Winterhalter, 1859 On 14 January 1858, an Italian refugee from Britain called Felice Orsini attempted to assassinate Napoleon III with a bomb made in England.[102] The ensuing diplomatic crisis destabilised the government, and Palmerston resigned. Derby was reinstated as prime minister.[103] Victoria and Albert attended the opening of a new basin at the French military port of Cherbourg on 5 August 1858, in an attempt by Napoleon III to reassure Britain that his military preparations were directed elsewhere. On her return Victoria wrote to Derby reprimanding him for the poor state of the Royal Navy in comparison to the French Navy.[104] Derby's ministry did not last long, and in June 1859 Victoria recalled Palmerston to office.[105] Eleven days after Orsini's assassination attempt in France, Victoria's eldest daughter married Prince Frederick William of Prussia in London. They had been betrothed since September 1855, when Princess Victoria was 14 years old; the marriage was delayed by the Queen and her husband Albert until the bride was 17.[106] The Queen and Albert hoped that their daughter and son-in-law would be a liberalising influence in the enlarging Prussian state.[107] The Queen felt "sick at heart" to see her daughter leave England for Germany; "It really makes me shudder", she wrote to Princess Victoria in one of her frequent letters, "when I look round to all your sweet, happy, unconscious sisters, and think I must give them up too – one by one."[108] Almost exactly a year later, the Princess gave birth to the Queen's first grandchild, Wilhelm, who would become the last German Emperor. Widowhood Victoria photographed by J. J. E. Mayall, 1860 In March 1861, Victoria's mother died, with Victoria at her side. Through reading her mother's papers, Victoria discovered that her mother had loved her deeply;[109] she was heart-broken, and blamed Conroy and Lehzen for "wickedly" estranging her from her mother.[110] To relieve his wife during her intense and deep grief,[111] Albert took on most of her duties, despite being ill himself with chronic stomach trouble.[112] In August, Victoria and Albert visited their son, Albert Edward, Prince of Wales, who was attending army manoeuvres near Dublin, and spent a few days holidaying in Killarney. In November, Albert was made aware of gossip that his son had slept with an actress in Ireland.[113] Appalled, he travelled to Cambridge, where his son was studying, to confront him.[114] By the beginning of December, Albert was very unwell.[115] He was diagnosed with typhoid fever by William Jenner, and died on 14 December 1861. Victoria was devastated.[116] She blamed her husband's death on worry over the Prince of Wales's philandering. He had been "killed by that dreadful business", she said.[117] She entered a state of mourning and wore black for the remainder of her life. She avoided public appearances and rarely set foot in London in the following years.[118] Her seclusion earned her the nickname "widow of Windsor".[119] Her weight increased through comfort eating, which reinforced her aversion to public appearances.[120] Victoria's self-imposed isolation from the public diminished the popularity of the monarchy, and encouraged the growth of the republican movement.[121] She did undertake her official government duties, yet chose to remain secluded in her royal residences—Windsor Castle, Osborne House, and the private estate in Scotland that she and Albert had acquired in 1847, Balmoral Castle. In March 1864 a protester stuck a notice on the railings of Buckingham Palace that announced "these commanding premises to be let or sold in consequence of the late occupant's declining business".[122] Her uncle Leopold wrote to her advising her to appear in public. She agreed to visit the gardens of the Royal Horticultural Society at Kensington and take a drive through London in an open carriage.[123] Victoria and John Brown at Balmoral, 1863. Photograph by G. W. Wilson. Through the 1860s, Victoria relied increasingly on a manservant from Scotland, John Brown.[124] Rumours of a romantic connection and even a secret marriage appeared in print, and some referred to the Queen as "Mrs. Brown".[125] The story of their relationship was the subject of the 1997 movie Mrs. Brown. A painting by Sir Edwin Henry Landseer depicting the Queen with Brown was exhibited at the Royal Academy, and Victoria published a book, Leaves from the Journal of Our Life in the Highlands, which featured Brown prominently and in which the Queen praised him highly.[126] Palmerston died in 1865, and after a brief ministry led by Russell, Derby returned to power. In 1866, Victoria attended the State Opening of Parliament for the first time since Albert's death.[127] The following year she supported the passing of the Reform Act 1867 which doubled the electorate by extending the franchise to many urban working men,[128] though she was not in favour of votes for women.[129] Derby resigned in 1868, to be replaced by Benjamin Disraeli, who charmed Victoria. "Everyone likes flattery," he said, "and when you come to royalty you should lay it on with a trowel."[130] With the phrase "we authors, Ma'am", he complimented her.[131] Disraeli's ministry only lasted a matter of months, and at the end of the year his Liberal rival, William Ewart Gladstone, was appointed prime minister. Victoria found Gladstone's demeanour far less appealing; he spoke to her, she is thought to have complained, as though she were "a public meeting rather than a woman".[132] In 1870 republican sentiment in Britain, fed by the Queen's seclusion, was boosted after the establishment of the Third French Republic.[133] A republican rally in Trafalgar Square demanded Victoria's removal, and Radical MPs spoke against her.[134] In August and September 1871, she was seriously ill with an abscess in her arm, which Joseph Lister successfully lanced and treated with his new antiseptic carbolic acid spray.[135] In late November 1871, at the height of the republican movement, the Prince of Wales contracted typhoid fever, the disease that was believed to have killed his father, and Victoria was fearful her son would die.[136] As the tenth anniversary of her husband's death approached, her son's condition grew no better, and Victoria's distress continued.[137] To general rejoicing, he recovered.[138] Mother and son attended a public parade through London and a grand service of thanksgiving in St Paul's Cathedral on 27 February 1872, and republican feeling subsided.[139] On the last day of February 1872, two days after the thanksgiving service, 17-year-old Arthur O'Connor, a great-nephew of Irish MP Feargus O'Connor, waved an unloaded pistol at Victoria's open carriage just after she had arrived at Buckingham Palace. Brown, who was attending the Queen, grabbed him and O'Connor was later sentenced to 12 months' imprisonment,[140] and a birching.[141] As a result of the incident, Victoria's popularity recovered further.[142] Empress Wikisource has original text related to this article: Proclamation by the Queen in Council, to the princes, chiefs, and people of India After the Indian Rebellion of 1857, the British East India Company, which had ruled much of India, was dissolved, and Britain's possessions and protectorates on the Indian subcontinent were formally incorporated into the British Empire. The Queen had a relatively balanced view of the conflict, and condemned atrocities on both sides.[143] She wrote of "her feelings of horror and regret at the result of this bloody civil war",[144] and insisted, urged on by Albert, that an official proclamation announcing the transfer of power from the company to the state "should breathe feelings of generosity, benevolence and religious toleration".[145] At her behest, a reference threatening the "undermining of native religions and customs" was replaced by a passage guaranteeing religious freedom.[145] Victoria admired Heinrich von Angeli's 1875 portrait of her for its "honesty, total want of flattery, and appreciation of character".[146] In the 1874 general election, Disraeli was returned to power. He passed the Public Worship Regulation Act 1874, which removed Catholic rituals from the Anglican liturgy and which Victoria strongly supported.[147] She preferred short, simple services, and personally considered herself more aligned with the presbyterian Church of Scotland than the episcopal Church of England.[148] Disraeli also pushed the Royal Titles Act 1876 through Parliament, so that Victoria took the title "Empress of India" from 1 May 1876.[149] The new title was proclaimed at the Delhi Durbar of 1 January 1877.[150] On 14 December 1878, the anniversary of Albert's death, Victoria's second daughter Alice, who had married Louis of Hesse, died of diphtheria in Darmstadt. Victoria noted the coincidence of the dates as "almost incredible and most mysterious".[151] In May 1879, she became a great-grandmother (on the birth of Princess Feodora of Saxe-Meiningen) and passed her "poor old 60th birthday". She felt "aged" by "the loss of my beloved child".[152] Between April 1877 and February 1878, she threatened five times to abdicate while pressuring Disraeli to act against Russia during the Russo-Turkish War, but her threats had no impact on the events or their conclusion with the Congress of Berlin.[153] Disraeli's expansionist foreign policy, which Victoria endorsed, led to conflicts such as the Anglo-Zulu War and the Second Anglo-Afghan War. "If we are to maintain our position as a first-rate Power", she wrote, "we must ... be Prepared for attacks and wars, somewhere or other, CONTINUALLY."[154] Victoria saw the expansion of the British Empire as civilising and benign, protecting native peoples from more aggressive powers or cruel rulers: "It is not in our custom to annexe countries", she said, "unless we are obliged & forced to do so."[155] To Victoria's dismay, Disraeli lost the 1880 general election, and Gladstone returned as prime minister.[156] When Disraeli died the following year, she was blinded by "fast falling tears",[157] and erected a memorial tablet "placed by his grateful Sovereign and Friend, Victoria R.I."[158] Later years Victorian farthing, 1884 On 2 March 1882, Roderick Maclean, a disgruntled poet apparently offended by Victoria's refusal to accept one of his poems,[159] shot at the Queen as her carriage left Windsor railway station. Gordon Chesney Wilson and another schoolboy from Eton College struck him with their umbrellas, until he was hustled away by a policeman.[160] Victoria was outraged when he was found not guilty by reason of insanity,[161] but was so pleased by the many expressions of loyalty after the attack that she said it was "worth being shot at—to see how much one is loved".[162] On 17 March 1883, Victoria fell down some stairs at Windsor, which left her lame until July; she never fully recovered and was plagued with rheumatism thereafter.[163] John Brown died 10 days after her accident, and to the consternation of her private secretary, Sir Henry Ponsonby, Victoria began work on a eulogistic biography of Brown.[164] Ponsonby and Randall Davidson, Dean of Windsor, who had both seen early drafts, advised Victoria against publication, on the grounds that it would stoke the rumours of a love affair.[165] The manuscript was destroyed.[166] In early 1884, Victoria did publish More Leaves from a Journal of a Life in the Highlands, a sequel to her earlier book, which she dedicated to her "devoted personal attendant and faithful friend John Brown".[167] On the day after the first anniversary of Brown's death, Victoria was informed by telegram that her youngest son, Leopold, had died in Cannes. He was "the dearest of my dear sons", she lamented.[168] The following month, Victoria's youngest child, Beatrice, met and fell in love with Prince Henry of Battenberg at the wedding of Victoria's granddaughter Princess Victoria of Hesse and by Rhine to Henry's brother Prince Louis of Battenberg. Beatrice and Henry planned to marry, but Victoria opposed the match at first, wishing to keep Beatrice at home to act as her companion. After a year, she was won around to the marriage by their promise to remain living with and attending her.[169] Extent of the British Empire in 1898 Victoria was pleased when Gladstone resigned in 1885 after his budget was defeated.[170] She thought his government was "the worst I have ever had", and blamed him for the death of General Gordon at Khartoum.[171] Gladstone was replaced by Lord Salisbury. Salisbury's government only lasted a few months, however, and Victoria was forced to recall Gladstone, whom she referred to as a "half crazy & really in many ways ridiculous old man".[172] Gladstone attempted to pass a bill granting Ireland home rule, but to Victoria's glee it was defeated.[173] In the ensuing election, Gladstone's party lost to Salisbury's and the government switched hands again. Golden Jubilee The Munshi stands over Victoria as she works at a desk Victoria and the Munshi Abdul Karim In 1887, the British Empire celebrated Victoria's Golden Jubilee. She marked the fiftieth anniversary of her accession on 20 June with a banquet to which 50 kings and princes were invited. The following day, she participated in a procession and attended a thanksgiving service in Westminster Abbey.[174] By this time, Victoria was once again extremely popular.[175] Two days later on 23 June,[176] she engaged two Indian Muslims as waiters, one of whom was Abdul Karim. He was soon promoted to "Munshi": teaching her Urdu and acting as a clerk.[177][178][179] Her family and retainers were appalled, and accused Abdul Karim of spying for the Muslim Patriotic League, and biasing the Queen against the Hindus.[180] Equerry Frederick Ponsonby (the son of Sir Henry) discovered that the Munshi had lied about his parentage, and reported to Lord Elgin, Viceroy of India, "the Munshi occupies very much the same position as John Brown used to do."[181] Victoria dismissed their complaints as racial prejudice.[182] Abdul Karim remained in her service until he returned to India with a pension, on her death.[183] Victoria's eldest daughter became empress consort of Germany in 1888, but she was widowed a little over three months later, and Victoria's eldest grandchild became German Emperor as Wilhelm II. Victoria and Albert's hopes of a liberal Germany would go unfulfilled, as Wilhelm was a firm believer in autocracy. Victoria thought he had "little heart or Zartgefühl [tact] – and ... his conscience & intelligence have been completely wharped [sic]".[184] Gladstone returned to power after the 1892 general election; he was 82 years old. Victoria objected when Gladstone proposed appointing the Radical MP Henry Labouchère to the Cabinet, so Gladstone agreed not to appoint him.[185] In 1894, Gladstone retired and, without consulting the outgoing prime minister, Victoria appointed Lord Rosebery as prime minister.[186] His government was weak, and the following year Lord Salisbury replaced him. Salisbury remained prime minister for the remainder of Victoria's reign.[187] Diamond Jubilee Seated Victoria in embroidered and lace dress Victoria in her official Diamond Jubilee photograph by W. & D. Downey On 23 September 1896, Victoria surpassed her grandfather George III as the longest-reigning monarch in British history. The Queen requested that any special celebrations be delayed until 1897, to coincide with her Diamond Jubilee,[188] which was made a festival of the British Empire at the suggestion of the Colonial Secretary, Joseph Chamberlain.[189] The prime ministers of all the self-governing Dominions were invited to London for the festivities.[190] One reason for including the prime ministers of the Dominions and excluding foreign heads of state was to avoid having to invite Victoria's grandson, Wilhelm II of Germany, who, it was feared, might cause trouble at the event.[191] The Queen's Diamond Jubilee procession on 22 June 1897 followed a route six miles long through London and included troops from all over the empire. The procession paused for an open-air service of thanksgiving held outside St Paul's Cathedral, throughout which Victoria sat in her open carriage, to avoid her having to climb the steps to enter the building. The celebration was marked by vast crowds of spectators and great outpourings of affection for the 78-year-old Queen.[192] Queen Victoria in Dublin, 1900 Victoria visited mainland Europe regularly for holidays. In 1889, during a stay in Biarritz, she became the first reigning monarch from Britain to set foot in Spain when she crossed the border for a brief visit.[193] By April 1900, the Boer War was so unpopular in mainland Europe that her annual trip to France seemed inadvisable. Instead, the Queen went to Ireland for the first time since 1861, in part to acknowledge the contribution of Irish regiments to the South African war.[194] Death and succession Portrait by Heinrich von Angeli, 1899 In July 1900, Victoria's second son, Alfred ("Affie"), died. "Oh, God! My poor darling Affie gone too", she wrote in her journal. "It is a horrible year, nothing but sadness & horrors of one kind & another."[195] Following a custom she maintained throughout her widowhood, Victoria spent the Christmas of 1900 at Osborne House on the Isle of Wight. Rheumatism in her legs had rendered her disabled, and her eyesight was clouded by cataracts.[196] Through early January, she felt "weak and unwell",[197] and by mid-January she was "drowsy ... dazed, [and] confused".[198] She died on 22 January 1901, at half past six in the evening, at the age of 81.[199] Her son and successor, King Edward VII, and her eldest grandson, Emperor Wilhelm II, were at her deathbed.[200] Her favourite pet Pomeranian, Turi, was laid upon her deathbed as a last request.[201] Poster proclaiming a day of mourning in Toronto on the day of Victoria's funeral In 1897, Victoria had written instructions for her funeral, which was to be military as befitting a soldier's daughter and the head of the army,[96] and white instead of black.[202] On 25 January, Edward, Wilhelm, and her third son, Arthur, helped lift her body into the coffin.[203] She was dressed in a white dress and her wedding veil.[204] An array of mementos commemorating her extended family, friends and servants were laid in the coffin with her, at her request, by her doctor and dressers. One of Albert's dressing gowns was placed by her side, with a plaster cast of his hand, while a lock of John Brown's hair, along with a picture of him, was placed in her left hand concealed from the view of the family by a carefully positioned bunch of flowers.[96][205] Items of jewellery placed on Victoria included the wedding ring of John Brown's mother, given to her by Brown in 1883.[96] Her funeral was held on Saturday 2 February, in St George's Chapel, Windsor Castle, and after two days of lying-in-state, she was interred beside Prince Albert in the Royal Mausoleum, Frogmore, at Windsor Great Park.[206] With a reign of 63 years, seven months, and two days, Victoria was the longest-reigning British monarch and the longest-reigning queen regnant in world history, until her great-great-granddaughter Elizabeth II surpassed her on 9 September 2015.[207] She was the last monarch of Britain from the House of Hanover; her son and successor, Edward VII, belonged to her husband's House of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha. Legacy See also: Cultural depictions of Queen Victoria Victoria smiling Victoria amused. The remark "We are not amused" is attributed to her but there is no direct evidence that she ever said it,[96][208] and she denied doing so.[209] According to one of her biographers, Giles St Aubyn, Victoria wrote an average of 2,500 words a day during her adult life.[210] From July 1832 until just before her death, she kept a detailed journal, which eventually encompassed 122 volumes.[211] After Victoria's death, her youngest daughter, Princess Beatrice, was appointed her literary executor. Beatrice transcribed and edited the diaries covering Victoria's accession onwards, and burned the originals in the process.[212] Despite this destruction, much of the diaries still exist. In addition to Beatrice's edited copy, Lord Esher transcribed the volumes from 1832 to 1861 before Beatrice destroyed them.[213] Part of Victoria's extensive correspondence has been published in volumes edited by A. C. Benson, Hector Bolitho, George Earle Buckle, Lord Esher, Roger Fulford, and Richard Hough among others.[214] Bronze statue of winged victory mounted on a marble four-sided base with a marble figure on each side The Victoria Memorial in front of Buckingham Palace was erected as part of the remodelling of the façade of the Palace a decade after her death. Victoria was physically unprepossessing—she was stout, dowdy and only about five feet (1.5 metres) tall—but she succeeded in projecting a grand image.[215] She experienced unpopularity during the first years of her widowhood, but was well liked during the 1880s and 1890s, when she embodied the empire as a benevolent matriarchal figure.[216] Only after the release of her diary and letters did the extent of her political influence become known to the wider public.[96][217] Biographies of Victoria written before much of the primary material became available, such as Lytton Strachey's Queen Victoria of 1921, are now considered out of date.[218] The biographies written by Elizabeth Longford and Cecil Woodham-Smith, in 1964 and 1972 respectively, are still widely admired.[219] They, and others, conclude that as a person Victoria was emotional, obstinate, honest, and straight-talking.[220] Contrary to popular belief, her staff and family recorded that Victoria "was immensely amused and roared with laughter" on many occasions.[221] Through Victoria's reign, the gradual establishment of a modern constitutional monarchy in Britain continued. Reforms of the voting system increased the power of the House of Commons at the expense of the House of Lords and the monarch.[222] In 1867, Walter Bagehot wrote that the monarch only retained "the right to be consulted, the right to encourage, and the right to warn".[223] As Victoria's monarchy became more symbolic than political, it placed a strong emphasis on morality and family values, in contrast to the sexual, financial and personal scandals that had been associated with previous members of the House of Hanover and which had discredited the monarchy. The concept of the "family monarchy", with which the burgeoning middle classes could identify, was solidified.[224] Descendants and haemophilia Victoria's links with Europe's royal families earned her the nickname "the grandmother of Europe".[225] Of the 42 grandchildren of Victoria and Albert, 34 survived to adulthood. Their living descendants include Elizabeth II; Harald V of Norway; Carl XVI Gustaf of Sweden; Margrethe II of Denmark; and Felipe VI of Spain. Victoria's youngest son, Leopold, was affected by the blood-clotting disease haemophilia B and at least two of her five daughters, Alice and Beatrice, were carriers. Royal haemophiliacs descended from Victoria included her great-grandsons, Alexei Nikolaevich, Tsarevich of Russia; Alfonso, Prince of Asturias; and Infante Gonzalo of Spain.[226] The presence of the disease in Victoria's descendants, but not in her ancestors, led to modern speculation that her true father was not the Duke of Kent, but a haemophiliac.[227] There is no documentary evidence of a haemophiliac in connection with Victoria's mother, and as male carriers always had the disease, even if such a man had existed he would have been seriously ill.[228] It is more likely that the mutation arose spontaneously because Victoria's father was over 50 at the time of her conception and haemophilia arises more frequently in the children of older fathers.[229] Spontaneous mutations account for about a third of cases.[230] Namesakes The Victoria Memorial in Kolkata, India Around the world, places and memorials are dedicated to her, especially in the Commonwealth nations. Places named after her include Africa's largest lake, Victoria Falls, the capitals of British Columbia (Victoria) and Saskatchewan (Regina), two Australian states (Victoria and Queensland), and the capital of the island nation of Seychelles. The Victoria Cross was introduced in 1856 to reward acts of valour during the Crimean War,[231] and it remains the highest British, Canadian, Australian, and New Zealand award for bravery. Victoria Day is a Canadian statutory holiday and a local public holiday in parts of Scotland celebrated on the last Monday before or on 24 May (Queen Victoria's birthday). Titles, styles, honours, and arms Titles and styles 24 May 1819 – 20 June 1837: Her Royal Highness Princess Alexandrina Victoria of Kent 20 June 1837 – 22 January 1901: Her Majesty The Queen At the end of her reign, the Queen's full style was: "Her Majesty Victoria, by the Grace of God, of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland Queen, Defender of the Faith, Empress of India".[232] Honours British honours Royal Family Order of King George IV, 1826[233] Founder and Sovereign of the Order of the Star of India, 25 June 1861[234] Founder and Sovereign of the Royal Order of Victoria and Albert, 10 February 1862[235] Founder and Sovereign of the Order of the Crown of India, 1 January 1878[236] Founder and Sovereign of the Order of the Indian Empire, 1 January 1878[237] Founder and Sovereign of the Royal Red Cross, 27 April 1883[238] Founder and Sovereign of the Distinguished Service Order, 6 November 1886[239] Albert Medal of the Royal Society of Arts, 1887[240] Founder and Sovereign of the Royal Victorian Order, 23 April 1896[241] Foreign honours Spain: Dame of the Order of Queen Maria Luisa, 21 December 1833[242] Grand Cross of the Order of Charles III[243] Portugal: Dame of the Order of Queen Saint Isabel, 23 February 1836[244] Grand Cross of Our Lady of Conception[243] Russia: Grand Cross of St. Catherine, 26 June 1837[245] France: Grand Cross of the Legion of Honour, 5 September 1843[246] Mexico: Grand Cross of the National Order of Guadalupe, 1854[247] Prussia: Dame of the Order of Louise, 1st Division, 11 June 1857[248] Brazil: Grand Cross of the Order of Pedro I, 3 December 1872[249] Persia:[250] Order of the Sun, 1st Class in Diamonds, 20 June 1873 Order of the August Portrait, 20 June 1873 Siam: Grand Cross of the White Elephant, 1880[251] Dame of the Order of the Royal House of Chakri, 1887[252] Hawaii: Grand Cross of the Order of Kamehameha I, with Collar, July 1881[253] Serbia:[254][255] Grand Cross of the Cross of Takovo, 1882 Grand Cross of the White Eagle, 1883 Grand Cross of St. Sava, 1897 Hesse and by Rhine: Dame of the Golden Lion, 25 April 1885[256] Bulgaria: Order of the Bulgarian Red Cross, August 1887[257] Ethiopia: Grand Cross of the Seal of Solomon, 22 June 1897 – Diamond Jubilee gift[258] Montenegro: Grand Cross of the Order of Prince Danilo I, 1897[259] Saxe-Coburg and Gotha: Silver Wedding Medal of Duke Alfred and duch*ess Marie, 23 January 1899[260] Arms As Sovereign, Victoria used the royal coat of arms of the United Kingdom. Before her accession, she received no grant of arms. As she could not succeed to the throne of Hanover, her arms did not carry the Hanoverian symbols that were used by her immediate predecessors. Her arms have been borne by all of her successors on the throne. Outside Scotland, the blazon for the shield—also used on the Royal Standard—is: Quarterly: I and IV, Gules, three lions passant guardant in pale Or (for England); II, Or, a lion rampant within a double tressure flory-counter-flory Gules (for Scotland); III, Azure, a harp Or stringed Argent (for Ireland). In Scotland, the first and fourth quarters are occupied by the Scottish lion, and the second by the English lions. The crests, mottoes, and supporters also differ in and outside Scotland. Coat of Arms of the United Kingdom (1837-1952).svg Coat of Arms of the United Kingdom in Scotland (1837-1952).svg Royal arms (outside Scotland) Royal arms (in Scotland) Family Victoria's family in 1846 by Franz Xaver Winterhalter. Left to right: Prince Alfred and the Prince of Wales; the Queen and Prince Albert; Princesses Alice, Helena and Victoria. Issue See also: Descendants of Queen Victoria and Royal descendants of Queen Victoria and King Christian IX Name Birth Death Spouse and children[232][261] Victoria, Princess Royal 21 November 1840 5 August 1901 Married 1858, Frederick, later German Emperor and King of Prussia (1831–1888); 4 sons (including Wilhelm II, German Emperor), 4 daughters (including Queen Sophia of Greece) Edward VII of the United Kingdom 9 November 1841 6 May 1910 Married 1863, Princess Alexandra of Denmark (1844–1925); 3 sons (including King George V of the United Kingdom), 3 daughters (including Queen Maud of Norway) Princess Alice 25 April 1843 14 December 1878 Married 1862, Louis IV, Grand Duke of Hesse and by Rhine (1837–1892); 2 sons, 5 daughters (including Empress Alexandra Feodorovna of Russia) Alfred, Duke of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha 6 August 1844 31 July 1900 Married 1874, Grand duch*ess Maria Alexandrovna of Russia (1853–1920); 2 sons (1 stillborn), 4 daughters (including Queen Marie of Romania) Princess Helena 25 May 1846 9 June 1923 Married 1866, Prince Christian of Schleswig-Holstein (1831–1917); 4 sons (1 stillborn), 2 daughters Princess Louise 18 March 1848 3 December 1939 Married 1871, John Campbell, Marquess of Lorne, later 9th Duke of Argyll (1845–1914); no issue Prince Arthur, Duke of Connaught and Strathearn 1 May 1850 16 January 1942 Married 1879, Princess Louise Margaret of Prussia (1860–1917); 1 son, 2 daughters (including Crown Princess Margaret of Sweden) Prince Leopold, Duke of Albany 7 April 1853 28 March 1884 Married 1882, Princess Helena of Waldeck and Pyrmont (1861–1922); 1 son, 1 daughter Princess Beatrice 14 April 1857 26 October 1944 Married 1885, Prince Henry of Battenberg (1858–1896); 3 sons, 1 daughter (Queen Victoria Eugenie of Spain) Ancestry Ancestors of Queen Victoria[262] Family tree Red borders indicate British monarchs Bold borders indicate children of British monarchs Family of Queen Victoria, spanning the reigns of her grandfather, George III, to her grandson, George V Notes Her godparents were Tsar Alexander I of Russia (represented by her uncle Frederick, Duke of York), her uncle George, Prince Regent, her aunt Queen Charlotte of Württemberg (represented by Victoria's aunt Princess Augusta) and Victoria's maternal grandmother the Dowager duch*ess of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld (represented by Victoria's aunt Princess Mary, duch*ess of Gloucester and Edinburgh). Under section 2 of the Regency Act 1830, the Accession Council's proclamation declared Victoria as the King's successor "saving the rights of any issue of His late Majesty King William the Fourth which may be borne of his late Majesty's Consort". "No. 19509". The London Gazette. 20 June 1837. p. 1581. References Citations Hibbert, pp. 3–12; Strachey, pp. 1–17; Woodham-Smith, pp. 15–29 Hibbert, pp. 12–13; Longford, p. 23; Woodham-Smith, pp. 34–35 Longford, p. 24 Worsley, p. 41. Hibbert, p. 31; St Aubyn, p. 26; Woodham-Smith, p. 81 Hibbert, p. 46; Longford, p. 54; St Aubyn, p. 50; Waller, p. 344; Woodham-Smith, p. 126 Hibbert, p. 19; Marshall, p. 25 Hibbert, p. 27; Longford, pp. 35–38, 118–119; St Aubyn, pp. 21–22; Woodham-Smith, pp. 70–72. The rumours were false in the opinion of these biographers. 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Archived 9 October 2010 at the Wayback Machine "Silver Wedding medal of Duke Alfred of Saxe-Coburg & Grand duch*ess Marie", Royal Collection, archived from the original on 12 December 2019, retrieved 12 December 2019 Whitaker's Almanack (1993) Concise Edition, London: J. Whitaker and Sons, ISBN 0-85021-232-4, pp. 134–136 Louda, Jiří; Maclagan, Michael (1999), Lines of Succession: Heraldry of the Royal Families of Europe, London: Little, Brown, p. 34, ISBN 978-1-85605-469-0 Bibliography Charles, Barrie (2012), Kill the Queen! The Eight Assassination Attempts on Queen Victoria, Stroud: Amberley Publishing, ISBN 978-1-4456-0457-2 Hibbert, Christopher (2000), Queen Victoria: A Personal History, London: HarperCollins, ISBN 0-00-638843-4 Longford, Elizabeth (1964), Victoria R.I., London: Weidenfeld & Nicolson, ISBN 0-297-17001-5 Marshall, Dorothy (1972), The Life and Times of Queen Victoria (1992 reprint ed.), London: Weidenfeld & Nicolson, ISBN 0-297-83166-6 Packard, Jerrold M. (1998), Victoria's Daughters, New York: St. Martin's Press, ISBN 0-312-24496-7 Potts, D. M.; Potts, W. T. W. (1995), Queen Victoria's Gene: Haemophilia and the Royal Family, Stroud: Alan Sutton, ISBN 0-7509-1199-9 St. Aubyn, Giles (1991), Queen Victoria: A Portrait, London: Sinclair-Stevenson, ISBN 1-85619-086-2 Strachey, Lytton (1921), Queen Victoria, London: Chatto and Windus Waller, Maureen (2006), Sovereign Ladies: The Six Reigning Queens of England, London: John Murray, ISBN 0-7195-6628-2 Weintraub, Stanley (1997), Albert: Uncrowned King, London: John Murray, ISBN 0-7195-5756-9 Woodham-Smith, Cecil (1972), Queen Victoria: Her Life and Times 1819–1861, London: Hamish Hamilton, ISBN 0-241-02200-2 Worsley, Lucy (2018), Queen Victoria – Daughter, Wife, Mother, Widow, London: Hodder & Stoughton Ltd, ISBN 978-1-4736-5138-8 Primary sources Benson, A. C.; Esher, Viscount, eds. (1907), The Letters of Queen Victoria: A Selection of Her Majesty's Correspondence Between the Years 1837 and 1861, London: John Murray Bolitho, Hector, ed. (1938), Letters of Queen Victoria from the Archives of the House of Brandenburg-Prussia, London: Thornton Butterworth Buckle, George Earle, ed. (1926), The Letters of Queen Victoria, 2nd Series 1862–1885, London: John Murray Buckle, George Earle, ed. (1930), The Letters of Queen Victoria, 3rd Series 1886–1901, London: John Murray Connell, Brian (1962), Regina v. Palmerston: The Correspondence between Queen Victoria and her Foreign and Prime Minister, 1837–1865, London: Evans Brothers Duff, David, ed. (1968), Victoria in the Highlands: The Personal Journal of Her Majesty Queen Victoria, London: Muller Dyson, Hope; Tennyson, Charles, eds. (1969), Dear and Honoured Lady: The Correspondence between Queen Victoria and Alfred Tennyson, London: Macmillan Esher, Viscount, ed. (1912), The Girlhood of Queen Victoria: A Selection from Her Majesty's Diaries Between the Years 1832 and 1840, London: John Murray Fulford, Roger, ed. (1964), Dearest Child: Letters Between Queen Victoria and the Princess Royal, 1858–1861, London: Evans Brothers Fulford, Roger, ed. (1968), Dearest Mama: Letters Between Queen Victoria and the Crown Princess of Prussia, 1861–1864, London: Evans Brothers Fulford, Roger, ed. (1971), Beloved Mama: Private Correspondence of Queen Victoria and the German Crown Princess, 1878–1885, London: Evans Brothers Fulford, Roger, ed. (1971), Your Dear Letter: Private Correspondence of Queen Victoria and the Crown Princess of Prussia, 1863–1871, London: Evans Brothers Fulford, Roger, ed. (1976), Darling Child: Private Correspondence of Queen Victoria and the German Crown Princess of Prussia, 1871–1878, London: Evans Brothers Hibbert, Christopher, ed. (1984), Queen Victoria in Her Letters and Journals, London: John Murray, ISBN 0-7195-4107-7 Hough, Richard, ed. (1975), Advice to a Grand-daughter: Letters from Queen Victoria to Princess Victoria of Hesse, London: Heinemann, ISBN 0-434-34861-9 Jagow, Kurt, ed. (1938), Letters of the Prince Consort 1831–1861, London: John Murray Mortimer, Raymond, ed. (1961), Queen Victoria: Leaves from a Journal, New York: Farrar, Straus & Cudahy Ponsonby, Frederick, ed. (1930), Letters of the Empress Frederick, London: Macmillan Ramm, Agatha, ed. (1990), Beloved and Darling Child: Last Letters between Queen Victoria and Her Eldest Daughter, 1886–1901, Stroud: Sutton Publishing, ISBN 978-0-86299-880-6 Victoria, Queen (1868), Leaves from the Journal of Our Life in the Highlands from 1848 to 1861, London: Smith, Elder Victoria, Queen (1884), More Leaves from the Journal of Our Life in the Highlands from 1862 to 1882, London: Smith, Elder Further reading Arnstein, Walter L. (2003), Queen Victoria, New York: Palgrave Macmillan, ISBN 978-0-333-63806-4 Baird, Julia (2016), Victoria The Queen: An Intimate Biography of the Woman Who Ruled an Empire, New York: Random House, ISBN 978-1-4000-6988-0 Cadbury, Deborah (2017), Queen Victoria's Matchmaking: The Royal Marriages That Shaped Europe, Bloomsbury Carter, Sarah; Nugent, Maria Nugent, eds. (2016), Mistress of everything: Queen Victoria in Indigenous worlds, Manchester University Press Eyck, Frank (1959), The Prince Consort: a political biography, Chatto Gardiner, Juliet (1997), Queen Victoria, London: Collins and Brown, ISBN 978-1-85585-469-7 Homans, Margaret; Munich, Adrienne, eds. (1997), Remaking Queen Victoria, Cambridge University Press Homans, Margaret (1997), Royal Representations: Queen Victoria and British Culture, 1837–1876 Hough, Richard (1996), Victoria and Albert, St. Martin's Press, ISBN 978-0-312-30385-3 James, Robert Rhodes (1983), Albert, Prince Consort: A Biography, Hamish Hamilton, ISBN 9780394407630 Kingsley Kent, Susan (2015), Queen Victoria: Gender and Empire Lyden, Anne M. (2014), A Royal Passion: Queen Victoria and Photography, Los Angeles: Getty Publications, ISBN 978-1-60606-155-8 Ridley, Jane (2015), Victoria: Queen, Matriarch, Empress, Penguin Taylor, Miles (2020), "The Bicentenary of Queen Victoria", Journal of British Studies, 59: 121–135, doi:10.1017/jbr.2019.245, S2CID 213433777 Weintraub, Stanley (1987), Victoria: Biography of a Queen, London: HarperCollins, ISBN 978-0-04-923084-2 Wilson, A. N. (2014), Victoria: A Life, London: Atlantic Books, ISBN 978-1-84887-956-0 External links Listen to this article (1 hour and 2 minutes) 1:01:53 Spoken Wikipedia icon This audio file was created from a revision of this article dated 20 July 2014, and does not reflect subsequent edits. (Audio help · More spoken articles) Queen Victoria at Wikipedia's sister projects Media from Commons Quotations from Wikiquote Texts from Wikisource Data from Wikidata Portraits of Queen Victoria at the National Portrait Gallery, London Edit this at Wikidata Queen Victoria's Journals, online from the Royal Archive and Bodleian Library Works by Queen Victoria at Project Gutenberg Works by or about Queen Victoria at Internet Archive Works by Queen Victoria at LibriVox (public domain audiobooks) Newspaper clippings about Queen Victoria in the 20th Century Press Archives of the ZBW Queen Victoria House of Hanover Cadet branch of the House of Welf Born: 24 May 1819 Died: 22 January 1901 Regnal titles Preceded by William IV Queen of the United Kingdom 20 June 1837 – 22 January 1901 Succeeded by Edward VII Vacant Title last held by Bahadur Shah II as Mughal emperor Empress of India 1 May 1876 – 22 January 1901 vte Queen Victoria Events Coronation HonoursHackpen White HorseWedding Wedding dressGolden Jubilee HonoursMedalPolice MedalClock Tower, WeymouthClock Tower, BrightonBustAdelaide Jubilee International ExhibitionDiamond Jubilee HonoursMedalJubilee DiamondJubilee TowerCherries jubileeRecessional (poem)Cunningham Clock TowerDevonshire House Ball Reign Bedchamber crisisPrime MinistersEdward OxfordEmpress of IndiaJohn William BeanVictorian eraVictorian moralityVisits to ManchesterForeign visitsState funeralMausoleum Family Albert, Prince Consort (husband)Victoria, Princess Royal (daughter)Edward VII (son)Princess Alice of the United Kingdom (daughter)Alfred, Duke of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha (son)Princess Helena of the United Kingdom (daughter)Princess Louise, duch*ess of Argyll (daughter)Prince Arthur, Duke of Connaught and Strathearn (son)Prince Leopold, Duke of Albany (son)Princess Beatrice of the United Kingdom (daughter)Prince Edward, Duke of Kent and Strathearn (father)Princess Victoria of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld (mother)DescendantsRoyal descendantsPrincess Feodora of Leiningen (half-sister)Carl, 3rd Prince of Leiningen (half-brother) Early life Kensington SystemJohn ConroyVictoire ConroyLouise LehzenLady Flora HastingsCharlotte PercyGeorge DavysLegitimacy Honours PlacesEmpire DayRoyal Family OrderVictoria DayVictoria Day (Scotland)Victoria CrossVictoria (plant) Depictions Film Sixty Years a Queen (1913)Victoria in Dover (1936)Victoria the Great (1937)Sixty Glorious Years (1938)Victoria in Dover (1954)Mrs Brown (1997)The Young Victoria (2009)Victoria & Abdul (2017)The Black Prince (2017)Dolittle (2020) Television Happy and Glorious (1952)Victoria Regina (1961)The Young Victoria (1963)Victoria & Albert (2001)Looking for Victoria (2003)Royal Upstairs Downstairs (2011)Victoria (2016–2019) Stage Victoria and Merrie England (1897)Victoria Regina (1934)I and Albert (1972) Statues and Memorials List of statuesLondon MemorialStatueSquareLeedsSt HelensLancasterBristolWeymouthChesterReadingLiverpoolBirminghamBirkenheadDundeeBalmoral cairnsGuernseyIsle of ManValletta StatueGateWinnipegMontreal SquareVictoria, British ColumbiaTorontoReginaBangaloreHong KongKolkataVisakhapatnamPenangSydney BuildingSquareAdelaideBrisbaneMelbourneChristchurch Poetry "The Widow at Windsor" (1892)"Recessional" (1897) Songs VictoriaChoral Songs Stamps British Penny Black VR officialPenny BlueTwo penny bluePenny RedEmbossed stampsHalfpenny Rose RedThree Halfpence RedPenny Venetian RedPenny LilacLilac and Green IssueJubilee Issue Colonial Chalon headCanada 12d blackCanada 2c Large QueenCeylon Dull RoseIndia Inverted Head 4 annasMalta Halfpenny YellowMauritius "Post Office" stamps Related Osborne HouseQueen Victoria's journalsJohn BrownAbdul KarimPets DashDiamond Crown vte English, Scottish and British monarchs Monarchs of England until 1603 Monarchs of Scotland until 1603 Alfred the GreatEdward the ElderÆlfweardÆthelstanEdmund IEadredEadwigEdgar the PeacefulEdward the MartyrÆthelred the UnreadySweynEdmund Ironsidecnu*tHarold IHarthacnu*tEdward the 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rulers are in italics. vte British princesses The generations indicate descent from George I, who formalised the use of the titles prince and princess for members of the British royal family. Where a princess may have been or is descended from George I more than once, her most senior descent, by which she bore or bears her title, is used. 1st generation Sophia Dorothea, Queen in Prussia 2nd generation Anne, Princess Royal and Princess of OrangePrincess AmeliaPrincess CarolineMary, Landgravine of Hesse-KasselLouise, Queen of Denmark and Norway 3rd generation Augusta, duch*ess of BrunswickPrincess ElizabethPrincess LouisaCaroline Matilda, Queen of Denmark and Norway 4th generation Charlotte, Princess Royal and Queen of WürttembergPrincess Augusta SophiaElizabeth, Landgravine of Hesse-HomburgPrincess Mary, duch*ess of Gloucester and EdinburghPrincess SophiaPrincess AmeliaPrincess Sophia of GloucesterPrincess Caroline of Gloucester 5th generation Princess Charlotte, Princess Leopold of Saxe-Coburg-SaalfeldPrincess Elizabeth of ClarenceQueen VictoriaAugusta, Grand duch*ess of Mecklenburg-StrelitzPrincess Mary Adelaide, duch*ess of Teck 6th generation Victoria, Princess Royal and German EmpressAlice, Grand duch*ess of Hesse and by RhinePrincess Helena, Princess Christian of Schleswig-HolsteinPrincess Louise, duch*ess of ArgyllPrincess Beatrice, Princess Henry of BattenbergPrincess Frederica, Baroness von Pawel-RammingenPrincess Marie of Hanover 7th generation Louise, Princess Royal and duch*ess of FifePrincess VictoriaMaud, Queen of NorwayMarie, Queen of RomaniaGrand duch*ess Victoria Feodorovna of RussiaPrincess Alexandra, Princess of Hohenlohe-LangenburgPrincess Beatrice, duch*ess of GallieraMargaret, Crown Princess of SwedenPrincess Patricia, Lady Patricia RamsayPrincess Alice, Countess of AthlonePrincess Marie Louise, Princess Maximilian of BadenAlexandra, Grand duch*ess of Mecklenburg-SchwerinPrincess Olga of Hanover 8th generation Mary, Princess Royal and Countess of HarewoodPrincess Alexandra, 2nd duch*ess of FifePrincess Maud, Countess of SoutheskPrincess Sibylla, duch*ess of VästerbottenPrincess Caroline Mathilde of Saxe-Coburg and GothaFrederica, Queen of Greece 9th generation Queen Elizabeth IIPrincess Margaret, Countess of SnowdonPrincess Alexandra, The Honourable Lady Ogilvy 10th generation Anne, Princess Royal 11th generation Princess Beatrice, Mrs Edoardo Mapelli MozziPrincess Eugenie, Mrs Jack BrooksbankLady Louise Mountbatten-Windsor1 12th generation Princess Charlotte of Cambridge 1 Status debatable; see her article. vte Hanoverian princesses by birth Generations are numbered by descent from the first King of Hanover, George III. 1st generation Charlotte, Queen of WürttembergPrincess Augusta SophiaElizabeth, Landgravine of Hesse-HomburgPrincess Mary, duch*ess of Gloucester and EdinburghPrincess SophiaPrincess Amelia 2nd generation Charlotte, Princess Leopold of Saxe-Coburg-SaalfeldPrincess Charlotte of ClarenceQueen Victoria of the United KingdomPrincess Elizabeth of ClarenceAugusta, Grand duch*ess of Mecklenburg-StrelitzPrincess Mary Adelaide, duch*ess of Teck 3rd generation Princess Frederica, Baroness von Pawel-RammingenPrincess Marie 4th generation Marie Louise, Princess Maximilian of BadenAlexandra, Grand duch*ess of Mecklenburg-SchwerinPrincess Olga 5th generation Frederica, Queen of the Hellenes 6th generation Princess Marie, Countess von HochbergPrincess OlgaPrincess Alexandra, Princess of LeiningenPrincess Friederike 7th generation Princess AlexandraPrincess Eugenia 8th generation Princess ElisabethPrincess EleonoraPrincess Sofia Authority control Edit this at Wikidata General ISNI 1VIAF 1WorldCat National libraries NorwaySpainFrance (data)CataloniaGermanyItalyIsraelUnited StatesLatviaJapanCzech RepublicAustraliaGreeceKoreaCroatiaNetherlandsPolandSwedenVatican Art galleries and museums VictoriaTe Papa (New Zealand) Art research institutes RKD Artists (Netherlands)Artist Names (Getty) Biographical dictionaries Germany Scientific databases CiNii (Japan) Other Faceted Application of Subject TerminologyMusicBrainz artist 2National Archives (US)RISM (France) 1Social Networks and Archival Context 2SUDOC (France) 1Trove (Australia) 1 Categories: Queen Victoria1819 births1901 deathsMonarchs of the United KingdomMonarchs of the Isle of ManHeads of state of CanadaMonarchs of AustraliaHeads of state of New ZealandQueens regnant in the British Isles19th-century British monarchs20th-century British monarchsHouse of HanoverHanoverian princessesHouse of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha (United Kingdom)Empresses regnantIndian empressesBritish princesses19th-century diaristsBritish diaristsFounders of English schools and collegesPeople associated with the Royal National College for the BlindPeople from KensingtonBritish people of German descentFemale critics of feminismKnights Grand Cross of the Order of the Immaculate Conception of Vila ViçosaDames of the Order of Saint IsabelGrand Croix of the Légion d'honneurGrand Crosses of the Order of St. SavaRecipients of the Order of the Cross of Takovo What is an Antique 7 What exactly is an Antique? In purist words, and based on the “official” description from the United States Customs Service, antiques have generally been viewed as things with no less than a hundred years of age under their belts. Meaning the scale slides each year since a lot more items age to suit into that particular time period. Then again, the word antique is employed rather freely from the public, and frequently lands up highlighting the age of the individual utilizing it over the definite definition. For a teenager, for instance, a home kitchen items from the 60’s appears “antique,” while a older adult may see antiques as the numerous items they utilized or spotted in the homes of their grandparents as a kid. Varying Views Among “Experts” Obviously, you may ask several different antiques “experts” what exactly an antique is and you’ll obtain a few different answers. There have already been hot discussions about this very topic when multiple antiques experts have gathered to try and define the word antique. A few experts tend to look more at high design and style whenever deeming an item antique. They view antiques as “masterpieces” of style and of merely the best quality. For this evaluation, anything from primitive furniture of all ages to faceless Amish rag dolls coming from the late twentieth century wouldn’t be regarded antique no matter the scarcity of the object. A number of other experts don’t agree with these people. A great way to view it is the dividing line drawn in which styles totally changed from the old-fashioned look toward the contemporary. Hemlines were reduced and simplified, and Art Deco design was the extremely popular throughout the 1920s stepping into the 1930s. These types of fashion and design developments having a modern curve, and the like within this transitional period, offer a stark distinction into the elegant nature of Victorian, Edwardian, as well as Colonial influences observed in the past decades to hundreds of years. Bearing this in mind, one perspective is to see things made just before 1920 as antiques and newer items as “collectibles.” The antique scale slides with regards to the real age of these items as we go on to move ahead through the calendar, however. The moment 2020 comes around these objects will be regarded as antiques by the U.S. Customs Service definition thus broadly adopted in the field. How Must You Describe Objects You’re Selling? Perhaps even the most honest sellers having the best of intentions can do a miscalculation occasionally to describe their wares. However when sellers use terms improperly, particularly if they do it over and over again, those blunders could quickly ruin their integrity. For this reason alone it’s best if you try to obtain the facts straight. Distinguishing something that is actually a collectible – anything under a hundred years old – as an antique makes smart buyers feel as if you’re simply wanting to pull one over to them. It may also cause you to look ignorant as to what you’re selling, or much worse, dishonest. If the item is clearly newer than a hundred years in age, simply refer to it as a collectible. In case you actually think that a product is over a hundred years in age after doing research, then it’s completely fine to refer to it as an antique. A few online selling sites have got particular groups to adhere to which differentiate antiques from collectibles. You’ll do better by having it right, because potential clients will examine those classes for what they’re searching for apart from depending on keyword searches. Even when you are marketing in an antique shopping mall or in a show, marking and representing your things precisely helps you well. Clients will return over and over again to find out what’s new within your booth should you do your very best to provide them great product which has been carefully investigated and properly sold. Types of Antiques As stated over and over before, antiques are items of old things like home furniture and jewelry or uncommon things which have been stored for over a hundred years old. When you are planning to enter antique collecting, then you’ll discover that this is an incredibly satisfying exercise where you can find a number of classes involved. You’ll certainly discover a rare item or thing at numerous avenues such as antique art galleries or at local flea markets and car boot sales and prior to going out and begin purchasing all that hits your curiosity you must first know the types of antique. Generally, antiques are things that where possible over a century old while they’re recognized for being rare, incredible and valuable. Here are a few types of antique items: Antique Furniture 183-144-190-Rosewood-Rococo-Parlor-set-Laminated-Pierced-carved-sofa-74in-long-50in.-Tall-by-Meeks-Stanton-Hall-patt.jpg An antique furniture is a valuable interior decorations of old age. Frequently its age, uniqueness, condition, utility, or any other unique features makes a furniture piece appealing as a collectors’ item, and so called an “antique”. Antique furniture might provide the body of a human (like seating or beds), offer storage space, or carry items on horizontal surfaces on top of the ground. Storage furniture (which frequently employs doors, compartments, as well as shelves) is utilized to carry or contain little items like tools, clothes, books, as well as home items. Furniture could be a product of creative style and it is regarded a type of decorative art. Besides furniture’s useful function, it could function a emblematic or religious purpose. Domestic furniture functions to produce, along with furnishings like clocks and lighting, comfy and convenient interior spots. Furniture can be created from numerous materials, such as steel, plastic, as well as wood. Cabinets and cupboard making are terms for the set of skills utilized in the constructing of furniture. Antique Jewelry IMG0539-copy Antique jewellery is jewellery which has hit an age of a hundred years or even more which makes it a witness of history. It’s commonly employed for second hand jewelry and for jewellery produced in earlier (style-)periods and not always pre-worn jewellery. It isn’t a dequalifying designation as numerous items of antique jewellery usually feature fine craftsmanship and superior quality gemstones, and also one-of-a-kind items. Antique jewellery consists of numerous years or eras. All of them has numerous different styles. These periods can include Early Victorian, Georgian, Mid-Victorian, Late Victorian, Crafts and arts era, Edwardian, Art Nouveau, Retro and Art Deco. Throughout the years it was royals who requested and set trends for the various fashions obediently accompanied by the upper class and bourgeoisie. The church too was a vitally important commissioner, even though more for silversmiths compared to goldsmiths. Antique Clocks maxresdefault Just as the name suggests, this object refers to mechanical clocks which were made over a hundred years ago. However, mechanical clocks have carried on to be made well into the twentieth century and still being manufactured these days. It must be observed that the majority of mechanical clocks which have been made over the past a hundred years, example the ones that aren’t antique, have been produced in a factory employing mass production methods. Mechanical antique clocks are available in many forms, both ground standing grandfather (longcase) clocks, wall dangling clocks, rack and mantle clocks as well as mount or table clocks. Antique clocks could be run both by weights working under gravity, or perhaps by springs. The two weight driven clocks as well as spring driven clocks are often wrapped by a key or crank (key) over the dial in front of the clock. Antique Kitchenware vintage-antique-kitchen-utensils-l-3ad44d78a72aee02 Aged or historic kitchen items go by many different labels from “culinary antiques” to “vintage kitchenalia”. No matter whether they’re ancient or mid-20th century “retro”, nearly all old cooking, serving, as well as storage objects attract a few collector wherever. Numerous items are simple to recognize, although not all. It’s not at all times obvious if the simple box or pot or implement had a specific title or perhaps a specific use. A set of jars (earthenware, stoneware, glass from the twentieth century) as well as boxes (wooden, tin) was required whenever food was kept at home and groceries were offered unwrapped. Homes got various beaters, paddles, as well as bats – a number of them called beetles – for functions from tenderising meat to working butter to pumping the dirt away from clothes. Basic wooden boards, mixing sticks, and big spoons had a number of uses. At times kitchen collectibles are classified based on what they’re made from. Wood (treen), copper, tinware, stoneware and many others. . Edward VIII (Edward Albert Christian George Andrew Patrick David; 23 June 1894 – 28 May 1972) was King of the United Kingdom and the Dominions of the British Empire and Emperor of India from 20 January 1936 until his abdication in December of the same year.[a] Edward was born during the reign of his great-grandmother Queen Victoria as the eldest child of the Duke and duch*ess of York, later King George V and Queen Mary. He was created Prince of Wales on his 16th birthday, seven weeks after his father succeeded as king. As a young man, Edward served in the British Army during the First World War and undertook several overseas tours on behalf of his father. While Prince of Wales, he engaged in a series of sexual affairs that worried both his father and then-British prime minister Stanley Baldwin. Upon his father's death in 1936, Edward became the second monarch of the House of Windsor. The new king showed impatience with court protocol, and caused concern among politicians by his apparent disregard for established constitutional conventions. Only months into his reign, a constitutional crisis was caused by his proposal to marry Wallis Simpson, an American who had divorced her first husband and was seeking a divorce from her second. The prime ministers of the United Kingdom and the Dominions opposed the marriage, arguing a divorced woman with two living ex-husbands was politically and socially unacceptable as a prospective queen consort. Additionally, such a marriage would have conflicted with Edward's status as titular head of the Church of England, which, at the time, disapproved of remarriage after divorce if a former spouse was still alive. Edward knew the Baldwin government would resign if the marriage went ahead, which could have forced a general election and would have ruined his status as a politically neutral constitutional monarch. When it became apparent he could not marry Simpson and remain on the throne, he abdicated. He was succeeded by his younger brother, George VI. With a reign of 326 days, Edward was one of the shortest-reigning British monarchs to date. After his abdication, Edward was created Duke of Windsor. He married Simpson in France on 3 June 1937, after her second divorce became final. Later that year, the couple toured Nazi Germany, which fed rumours that he was a Nazi sympathiser. During the Second World War, Edward was at first stationed with the British Military Mission to France but after the fall of France was appointed Governor of the Bahamas. After the war, Edward spent the rest of his life in France. He and Wallis remained married until his death in 1972; they had no children. Early life Edward (second from left) with his father and younger siblings (Albert and Mary), photograph by his grandmother Alexandra, 1899 Edward was born on 23 June 1894 at White Lodge, Richmond Park, on the outskirts of London during the reign of his great-grandmother Queen Victoria.[2] He was the eldest son of the Duke and duch*ess of York (later King George V and Queen Mary). His father was the son of the Prince and Princess of Wales (later King Edward VII and Queen Alexandra). His mother was the eldest daughter of Princess Mary Adelaide of Cambridge and Francis, Duke of Teck. At the time of his birth, he was third in the line of succession to the throne, behind his grandfather and father. He was baptised Edward Albert Christian George Andrew Patrick David in the Green Drawing Room of White Lodge on 16 July 1894 by Edward White Benson, Archbishop of Canterbury.[b] The name "Edward" was chosen in honour of Edward's late uncle Prince Albert Victor, Duke of Clarence and Avondale, who was known within the family as "Eddy" (Edward being among his given names); "Albert" was included at the behest of Queen Victoria for her late husband Albert, Prince Consort; "Christian" was in honour of his great-grandfather King Christian IX of Denmark; and the last four names – George, Andrew, Patrick and David – came from, respectively, the patron saints of England, Scotland, Ireland and Wales.[4] He was always known to his family and close friends by his last given name, David.[5] As was common practice with upper-class children of the time, Edward and his younger siblings were brought up by nannies rather than directly by their parents. One of Edward's early nannies often abused him by pinching him before he was due to be presented to his parents. His subsequent crying and wailing would lead the Duke and duch*ess to send him and the nanny away.[6] The nanny was discharged after her mistreatment of the children was discovered, and she was replaced by Charlotte Bill.[7] Edward's father, though a harsh disciplinarian,[8] was demonstratively affectionate,[9] and his mother displayed a frolicsome side with her children that belied her austere public image. She was amused by the children making tadpoles on toast for their French master as a prank,[10] and encouraged them to confide in her.[11] Education Edward as a midshipman on board HMS Hindustan, 1910 Initially, Edward was tutored at home by Helen Bricka. When his parents travelled the British Empire for almost nine months following the death of Queen Victoria in 1901, young Edward and his siblings stayed in Britain with their grandparents, Queen Alexandra and King Edward VII, who showered their grandchildren with affection. Upon his parents' return, Edward was placed under the care of two men, Frederick Finch and Henry Hansell, who virtually brought up Edward and his brothers and sister for their remaining nursery years.[12] Edward was kept under the strict tutorship of Hansell until almost thirteen years old. Private tutors taught him German and French.[13] Edward took the examination to enter the Royal Naval College, Osborne, and began there in 1907. Hansell had wanted Edward to enter school earlier, but the prince's father had disagreed.[14] Following two years at Osborne College, which he did not enjoy, Edward moved on to the Royal Naval College at Dartmouth. A course of two years, followed by entry into the Royal Navy, was planned.[15] Edward automatically became Duke of Cornwall and Duke of Rothesay on 6 May 1910 when his father ascended the throne as George V on the death of Edward VII. He was created Prince of Wales and Earl of Chester a month later on 23 June 1910, his 16th birthday.[16] Preparations for his future as king began in earnest. He was withdrawn from his naval course before his formal graduation, served as midshipman for three months aboard the battleship Hindustan, then immediately entered Magdalen College, Oxford, for which, in the opinion of his biographers, he was underprepared intellectually.[15] A keen horseman, he learned how to play polo with the university club.[17] He left Oxford after eight terms, without any academic qualifications.[15] Prince of Wales Edward was officially invested as Prince of Wales in a special ceremony at Caernarfon Castle on 13 July 1911.[18] The investiture took place in Wales, at the instigation of the Welsh politician David Lloyd George, Constable of the Castle and Chancellor of the Exchequer in the Liberal government.[19] Lloyd George invented a rather fanciful ceremony in the style of a Welsh pageant, and coached Edward to speak a few words in Welsh.[20] Edward in August 1915, during the First World War When the First World War broke out in 1914, Edward had reached the minimum age for active service and was keen to participate.[21] He had joined the Grenadier Guards in June 1914, and although Edward was willing to serve on the front lines, Secretary of State for War Lord Kitchener refused to allow it, citing the immense harm that would occur if the heir apparent to the throne were captured by the enemy.[22] Despite this, Edward witnessed trench warfare first-hand and visited the front line as often as he could, for which he was awarded the Military Cross in 1916. His role in the war, although limited, made him popular among veterans of the conflict.[23] He undertook his first military flight in 1918, and later gained a pilot's licence.[24] Edward's youngest brother, Prince John, died at the age of 13 on 18 January 1919 after a severe epileptic seizure.[25] Edward, who was 11 years older than John and had hardly known him, saw his death as "little more than a regrettable nuisance".[26] He wrote to his mistress of the time that "[he had] told [her] all about that little brother, and how he was an epileptic. [John]'s been practically shut up for the last two years anyhow, so no one has ever seen him except the family, and then only once or twice a year. This poor boy had become more of an animal than anything else." He also wrote an insensitive letter to his mother which has since been lost.[27] She did not reply, but he felt compelled to write her an apology, in which he stated: "I feel such a cold hearted and unsympathetic swine for writing all that I did ... No one can realize more than you how little poor Johnnie meant to me who hardly knew him ... I feel so much for you, darling Mama, who was his mother."[26] Edward in Ashburton, New Zealand, with returned servicemen, 1920 Throughout the 1920s, Edward, as the Prince of Wales, represented his father at home and abroad on many occasions. His rank, travels, good looks, and unmarried status gained him much public attention. At the height of his popularity, he was the most photographed celebrity of his time and he set men's fashion.[28] During his 1924 visit to the United States, Men's Wear magazine observed, "The average young man in America is more interested in the clothes of the Prince of Wales than in any other individual on earth."[29] Edward visited poverty-stricken areas of Britain,[30] and undertook 16 tours to various parts of the Empire between 1919 and 1935. On a tour of Canada in 1919, he acquired the Bedingfield ranch, near Pekisko, Alberta.[31] He escaped unharmed when the train he was riding in during a tour of Australia was derailed outside Perth in 1920.[32] Edward and his staff wearing kimono (yukata) in Japan, 1922 His November 1921 visit to India came during the non-cooperation movement protests for Indian self-rule, and was marked by riots in Bombay. In 1929 Sir Alexander Leith, a leading Conservative in the north of England, persuaded him to make a three-day visit to the County Durham and Northumberland coalfields, where there was much unemployment.[33] From January to April 1931, the Prince of Wales and his brother Prince George travelled 18,000 miles (29,000 km) on a tour of South America, steaming out on the ocean liner Oropesa,[34] and returning via Paris and an Imperial Airways flight from Paris–Le Bourget Airport that landed specially in Windsor Great Park.[35][36] Though widely travelled, Edward shared a widely held racial prejudice against foreigners and many of the Empire's subjects, believing that whites were inherently superior.[37] In 1920, on his visit to Australia, he wrote of Indigenous Australians: "they are the most revolting form of living creatures I've ever seen!! They are the lowest known form of human beings & are the nearest thing to monkeys."[38] In 1919, Edward agreed to be president of the organising committee for the proposed British Empire Exhibition at Wembley Park, Middlesex. He wished the Exhibition to include "a great national sports ground", and so played a part in the creation of Wembley Stadium.[39] Romances Portrait by Reginald Grenville Eves, c. 1920 By 1917, Edward liked to spend time partying in Paris while he was on leave from his regiment on the Western Front. He was introduced to Parisian courtesan Marguerite Alibert, with whom he became infatuated. He wrote her candid letters, which she kept. After about a year, Edward broke off the affair. In 1923, Alibert was acquitted in a spectacular murder trial after she shot her husband in the Savoy Hotel. Desperate efforts were made by the Royal Household to ensure that Edward's name was not mentioned in connection with the trial or Alibert.[40] Edward's womanising and reckless behaviour during the 1920s and 1930s worried Prime Minister Stanley Baldwin, King George V, and those close to the prince. George V was disappointed by his son's failure to settle down in life, disgusted by his affairs with married women, and reluctant to see him inherit the Crown. "After I am dead," George said, "the boy will ruin himself in twelve months."[41] George V favoured his second son Albert ("Bertie") and Albert's daughter Elizabeth ("Lilibet"), later King George VI and Queen Elizabeth II respectively. He told a courtier, "I pray to God that my eldest son will never marry and have children, and that nothing will come between Bertie and Lilibet and the throne."[42] In 1929, Time magazine reported that Edward teased Albert's wife, also named Elizabeth (later the Queen Mother), by calling her "Queen Elizabeth". The magazine asked if "she did not sometimes wonder how much truth there is in the story that he once said he would renounce his rights upon the death of George V – which would make her nickname come true".[43] Thelma Furness and the Prince of Wales in 1932 In 1930, George V gave Edward the lease of Fort Belvedere in Windsor Great Park.[44] There, he continued his relationships with a series of married women, including Freda Dudley Ward and Lady Furness, the American wife of a British peer, who introduced the prince to her friend and fellow American Wallis Simpson. Simpson had divorced her first husband, U.S. Navy officer Win Spencer, in 1927. Her second husband, Ernest Simpson, was a British-American businessman. Wallis Simpson and the Prince of Wales, it is generally accepted, became lovers, while Lady Furness travelled abroad, although the prince adamantly insisted to his father that he was not having an affair with her and that it was not appropriate to describe her as his mistress.[45] Edward's relationship with Simpson, however, further weakened his poor relationship with his father. Although his parents met Simpson at Buckingham Palace in 1935,[46] they later refused to receive her.[47] Edward's affair with an American divorcée led to such grave concern that the couple were followed by members of the Metropolitan Police Special Branch, who examined in secret the nature of their relationship. An undated report detailed a visit by the couple to an antique shop, where the proprietor later noted "that the lady seemed to have POW [Prince of Wales] completely under her thumb."[48] The prospect of having an American divorcée with a questionable past having such sway over the heir apparent led to anxiety among government and establishment figures.[49] Reign Edward VIII surrounded by heralds of the College of Arms prior to his only State Opening of Parliament, 3 November 1936 George V died on 20 January 1936, and Edward ascended the throne as Edward VIII. The next day, accompanied by Simpson, he broke with custom by watching the proclamation of his own accession from a window of St James's Palace.[50] He became the first monarch of the British Empire to fly in an aircraft when he flew from Sandringham to London for his Accession Council.[13] Edward caused unease in government circles with actions that were interpreted as interference in political matters. His comment during a tour of depressed villages in South Wales that "something must be done"[13] for the unemployed coal miners was seen as an attempt to guide government policy, though he had not proposed any remedy or change in policy. Government ministers were reluctant to send confidential documents and state papers to Fort Belvedere, because it was clear that Edward was paying little attention to them, and it was feared that Simpson and other house guests might read them, improperly or inadvertently revealing government secrets.[51] Edward's unorthodox approach to his role also extended to the coinage that bore his image. He broke with the tradition that the profile portrait of each successive monarch faced in the direction opposite to that of his or her predecessor. Edward insisted that he face left (as his father had done),[52] to show the parting in his hair.[53] Only a handful of test coins were struck before the abdication, and all are very rare.[54] When George VI succeeded to the throne he also faced left to maintain the tradition by suggesting that, had any further coins been minted featuring Edward's portrait, they would have shown him facing right.[55] Left-facing coinage portrait of Edward VIII On 16 July 1936, Jerome Bannigan, alias George Andrew McMahon, produced a loaded revolver as Edward rode on horseback at Constitution Hill, near Buckingham Palace. Police spotted the gun and pounced on him; he was quickly arrested. At Bannigan's trial, he alleged that "a foreign power" had approached him to kill Edward, that he had informed MI5 of the plan, and that he was merely seeing the plan through to help MI5 catch the real culprits. The court rejected the claims and sent him to jail for a year for "intent to alarm".[56] It is now thought that Bannigan had indeed been in contact with MI5, but the veracity of the remainder of his claims remains debatable.[57] In August and September, Edward and Simpson cruised the Eastern Mediterranean on the steam yacht Nahlin. By October it was becoming clear that the new king planned to marry Simpson, especially when divorce proceedings between the Simpsons were brought at Ipswich Assizes.[58] Although gossip about his affair was widespread in the United States, the British media kept silent voluntarily, and the general public knew nothing until early December.[59] Abdication Main article: Abdication of Edward VIII Edward VIII and Wallis Simpson on their Mediterranean holiday, 1936 On 16 November 1936, Edward invited Prime Minister Stanley Baldwin to Buckingham Palace and expressed his desire to marry Simpson when she became free to remarry. Baldwin informed him that his subjects would deem the marriage morally unacceptable, largely because remarriage after divorce was opposed by the Church of England, and the people would not tolerate Simpson as queen.[60] As king, Edward was the titular head of the Church, and the clergy expected him to support the Church's teachings. The Archbishop of Canterbury, Cosmo Gordon Lang, was vocal in insisting that Edward must go.[61] Edward proposed an alternative solution of a morganatic marriage, in which he would remain king but Simpson would not become queen consort. She would enjoy some lesser title instead, and any children they might have would not inherit the throne. This was supported by senior politician Winston Churchill in principle, and some historians suggest that he conceived the plan.[61] In any event, it was ultimately rejected by the British Cabinet[62] as well as other Dominion governments.[63] The other governments' views were sought pursuant to the Statute of Westminster 1931, which provided in part that "any alteration in the law touching the Succession to the Throne or the Royal Style and Titles shall hereafter require the assent as well of the Parliaments of all the Dominions as of the Parliament of the United Kingdom."[64] The Prime Ministers of Australia (Joseph Lyons), Canada (Mackenzie King) and South Africa (J. B. M. Hertzog) made clear their opposition to the king marrying a divorcée;[65] their Irish counterpart (Éamon de Valera) expressed indifference and detachment, while the Prime Minister of New Zealand (Michael Joseph Savage), having never heard of Simpson before, vacillated in disbelief.[66] Faced with this opposition, Edward at first responded that there were "not many people in Australia" and their opinion did not matter.[67] Cypher on a postbox erected during his short reign Edward informed Baldwin that he would abdicate if he could not marry Simpson. Baldwin then presented Edward with three options: give up the idea of marriage; marry against his ministers' wishes; or abdicate.[68] It was clear that Edward was not prepared to give up Simpson, and he knew that if he married against the advice of his ministers, he would cause the government to resign, prompting a constitutional crisis.[69] He chose to abdicate.[70] Edward duly signed the instruments of abdication[c] at Fort Belvedere on 10 December 1936 in the presence of his younger brothers: Prince Albert, Duke of York, next in line for the throne; Prince Henry, Duke of Gloucester; and Prince George, Duke of Kent.[71] The document included these words: "declare my irrevocable determination to renounce the throne for myself and for my descendants and my desire that effect should be given to this instrument of abdication immediately".[72] The next day, the last act of his reign was the royal assent to His Majesty's Declaration of Abdication Act 1936. As required by the Statute of Westminster, all the Dominions had already consented to the abdication.[1] On the night of 11 December 1936, Edward, now reverted to the title and style of a prince, explained his decision to abdicate in a worldwide BBC radio broadcast. He said, "I have found it impossible to carry the heavy burden of responsibility and to discharge my duties as king as I would wish to do without the help and support of the woman I love." He added that the "decision was mine and mine alone ... The other person most nearly concerned has tried up to the last to persuade me to take a different course".[73] Edward departed Britain for Austria the following day; he was unable to join Simpson until her divorce became absolute, several months later.[74] His brother, the Duke of York, succeeded to the throne as George VI. Accordingly, George VI's elder daughter, Princess Elizabeth, became heir presumptive. Duke of Windsor On 12 December 1936, at the accession meeting of the Privy Council of the United Kingdom, George VI announced his intention to make his brother the "Duke of Windsor" with the style of Royal Highness.[75] He wanted this to be the first act of his reign, although the formal documents were not signed until 8 March the following year. During the interim, Edward was known as the Duke of Windsor. George VI's decision to create Edward a royal duke ensured that he could neither stand for election to the British House of Commons nor speak on political subjects in the House of Lords.[76] Letters Patent dated 27 May 1937 re-conferred the "title, style, or attribute of Royal Highness" upon the Duke, but specifically stated that "his wife and descendants, if any, shall not hold said title or attribute". Some British ministers advised that the reconfirmation was unnecessary since Edward had retained the style automatically, and further that Simpson would automatically obtain the rank of wife of a prince with the style Her Royal Highness; others maintained that he had lost all royal rank and should no longer carry any royal title or style as an abdicated king, and be referred to simply as "Mr Edward Windsor". On 14 April 1937, Attorney General Sir Donald Somervell submitted to Home Secretary Sir John Simon a memorandum summarising the views of Lord Advocate T. M. Cooper, Parliamentary Counsel Sir Granville Ram, and himself: We incline to the view that on his abdication the Duke of Windsor could not have claimed the right to be described as a Royal Highness. In other words, no reasonable objection could have been taken if the King had decided that his exclusion from the lineal succession excluded him from the right to this title as conferred by the existing Letters Patent. The question however has to be considered on the basis of the fact that, for reasons which are readily understandable, he with the express approval of His Majesty enjoys this title and has been referred to as a Royal Highness on a formal occasion and in formal documents. In the light of precedent it seems clear that the wife of a Royal Highness enjoys the same title unless some appropriate express step can be and is taken to deprive her of it. We came to the conclusion that the wife could not claim this right on any legal basis. The right to use this style or title, in our view, is within the prerogative of His Majesty and he has the power to regulate it by Letters Patent generally or in particular circ*mstances.[77] Château de Candé, the Windsors' wedding venue The Duke married Simpson, who had changed her name by deed poll to Wallis Warfield (her birth surname), in a private ceremony on 3 June 1937, at Château de Candé, near Tours, France. When the Church of England refused to sanction the union, a County Durham clergyman, the Reverend Robert Anderson Jardine (Vicar of St Paul's, Darlington), offered to perform the ceremony, and the Duke accepted. George VI forbade members of the royal family to attend,[78] to the lasting resentment of the Duke and duch*ess of Windsor. Edward had particularly wanted his brothers the dukes of Gloucester and Kent and his second cousin Lord Louis Mountbatten to attend the ceremony.[79] The denial of the style Royal Highness to the duch*ess of Windsor caused further conflict, as did the financial settlement. The Government declined to include the Duke or duch*ess on the Civil List, and the Duke's allowance was paid personally by George VI. The Duke compromised his position with his brother by concealing the extent of his financial worth when they informally agreed on the amount of the allowance. Edward's wealth had accumulated from the revenues of the Duchy of Cornwall paid to him as Prince of Wales and ordinarily at the disposal of an incoming king. George VI also paid Edward for Sandringham House and Balmoral Castle, which were Edward's personal property, inherited from his father and thus did not automatically pass to George VI on his accession.[80] Edward received approximately £300,000 (equivalent to between £21 million and £140 million in 2021[81]) for both residences which was paid to him in yearly instalments. In the early days of George VI's reign the Duke telephoned daily, importuning for money and urging that the duch*ess be granted the style of Royal Highness, until the harassed king ordered that the calls not be put through.[82] Relations between the Duke of Windsor and the rest of the royal family were strained for decades. The Duke had assumed that he would settle in Britain after a year or two of exile in France. King George VI (with the support of Queen Mary and his wife Queen Elizabeth) threatened to cut off Edward's allowance if he returned to Britain without an invitation.[80] Edward became embittered against his mother, Queen Mary, writing to her in 1939: "[your last letter][d] destroy[ed] the last vestige of feeling I had left for you ... [and has] made further normal correspondence between us impossible."[83] Duke and duch*ess of Windsor in Germany, October 1937 Edward reviewing SS guards with Robert Ley The Duke and duch*ess meeting Adolf Hitler at Berchtesgaden In October 1937, the Duke and duch*ess visited Nazi Germany, against the advice of the British government, and met Adolf Hitler at his Berghof retreat in Bavaria. The visit was much publicised by the German media. During the visit the Duke gave full Nazi salutes.[84] In Germany, "they were treated like royalty ... members of the aristocracy would bow and curtsy towards her, and she was treated with all the dignity and status that the duke always wanted", according to royal biographer Andrew Morton in a 2016 BBC interview.[85] The former Austrian ambassador, Count Albert von Mensdorff-Pouilly-Dietrichstein, who was also a second cousin once removed and friend of George V, believed that Edward favoured German fascism as a bulwark against communism, and even that he initially favoured an alliance with Germany.[86] According to the Duke of Windsor, the experience of "the unending scenes of horror"[87] during the First World War led him to support appeasem*nt. Hitler considered Edward to be friendly towards Germany and thought that Anglo-German relations could have been improved through Edward if it were not for the abdication. Albert Speer quoted Hitler directly: "I am certain through him permanent friendly relations could have been achieved. If he had stayed, everything would have been different. His abdication was a severe loss for us."[88] The Duke and duch*ess settled in Paris, leasing a mansion in Boulevard Suchet [fr] from late 1938.[89] Second World War In May 1939, the Duke was commissioned by NBC to give a radio broadcast[90] (his first since abdicating) during a visit to the First World War battlefields of Verdun. In it he appealed for peace, saying "I am deeply conscious of the presence of the great company of the dead, and I am convinced that could they make their voices heard they would be with me in what I am about to say. I speak simply as a soldier of the Last War whose most earnest prayer it is that such cruel and destructive madness shall never again overtake mankind. There is no land whose people want war." The broadcast was heard across the world by millions.[91][92] It was widely regarded as supporting appeasem*nt,[93] and the BBC refused to broadcast it.[90] It was broadcast outside the United States on shortwave radio[94] and was reported in full by British broadsheet newspapers.[95] On the outbreak of the Second World War in September 1939, the Duke and duch*ess were brought back to Britain by Louis Mountbatten on board HMS Kelly, and Edward, although he held the rank of field marshal, was made a major-general attached to the British Military Mission in France.[13] In February 1940, the German ambassador in The Hague, Count Julius von Zech-Burkersroda, claimed that the Duke had leaked the Allied war plans for the defence of Belgium,[96] which the Duke later denied.[97] When Germany invaded the north of France in May 1940, the Windsors fled south, first to Biarritz, then in June to Francoist Spain. In July the pair moved to Portugal, where they lived at first in the home of Ricardo Espírito Santo, a Portuguese banker with both British and German contacts.[98] Under the code name Operation Willi, Nazi agents, principally Walter Schellenberg, plotted unsuccessfully to persuade the Duke to leave Portugal and return to Spain, kidnapping him if necessary.[99] Lord Caldecote wrote a warning to Winston Churchill, who by this point was prime minister, that "[the Duke] is well-known to be pro-Nazi and he may become a centre of intrigue."[100] Churchill threatened the Duke with a court-martial if he did not return to British soil.[101] In July 1940, Edward was appointed governor of the Bahamas. The Duke and duch*ess left Lisbon on 1 August aboard the American Export Lines steamship Excalibur, which was specially diverted from its usual direct course to New York City so that they could be dropped off at Bermuda on the 9th.[102] They left Bermuda for Nassau on the Canadian National Steamship Company vessel Lady Somers on 15 August, arriving two days later.[103] The Duke did not enjoy being governor and privately referred to the islands as "a third-class British colony".[104] The British Foreign Office strenuously objected when the Duke and duch*ess planned to cruise aboard a yacht belonging to Swedish magnate Axel Wenner-Gren, whom British and American intelligence wrongly believed to be a close friend of Luftwaffe commander Hermann Göring.[105] The Duke was praised for his efforts to combat poverty on the islands, although he was as contemptuous of the Bahamians as he was of most non-white peoples of the Empire. He said of Étienne Dupuch, the editor of the Nassau Daily Tribune: "It must be remembered that Dupuch is more than half Negro, and due to the peculiar mentality of this Race, they seem unable to rise to prominence without losing their equilibrium."[106] He was praised, even by Dupuch, for his resolution of civil unrest over low wages in Nassau in 1942, even though he blamed the trouble on "mischief makers – communists" and "men of Central European Jewish descent, who had secured jobs as a pretext for obtaining a deferment of draft".[107] He resigned from the post on 16 March 1945.[13] Many historians have suggested that Adolf Hitler was prepared to reinstate Edward as king in the hope of establishing a fascist puppet government in Britain after Operation Sea Lion.[108] It is widely believed that the Duke and duch*ess sympathised with fascism before and during the Second World War, and were moved to the Bahamas to minimise their opportunities to act on those feelings. In 1940 he said: "In the past 10 years Germany has totally reorganised the order of its society ... Countries which were unwilling to accept such a reorganisation of society and its concomitant sacrifices should direct their policies accordingly."[109] During the occupation of France, the Duke asked the German Wehrmacht forces to place guards at his Paris and Riviera homes; they did so.[110] In December 1940, the Duke gave Fulton Oursler of Liberty magazine an interview at Government House in Nassau. Oursler conveyed its content to President Franklin D. Roosevelt in a private meeting at the White House on 23 December 1940.[111] The interview was published on 22 March 1941 and in it the Duke was reported to have said that "Hitler was the right and logical leader of the German people" and that the time was coming for President Roosevelt to mediate a peace settlement. The Duke protested that he had been misquoted and misinterpreted.[112] The Allies became sufficiently disturbed by German plots revolving around the Duke that President Roosevelt ordered covert surveillance of the Duke and duch*ess when they visited Palm Beach, Florida, in April 1941. Duke Carl Alexander of Württemberg (then a monk in an American monastery) had told the Federal Bureau of Investigation that the duch*ess had slept with the German ambassador in London, Joachim von Ribbentrop, in 1936; had remained in constant contact with him; and had continued to leak secrets.[113] Author Charles Higham claimed that Anthony Blunt, an MI5 agent and Soviet spy, acting on orders from the British royal family, made a successful secret trip to Schloss Friedrichshof in Allied-occupied Germany towards the end of the war to retrieve sensitive letters between the Duke of Windsor and Adolf Hitler and other leading Nazis.[114] What is certain is that George VI sent the Royal Librarian, Owen Morshead, accompanied by Blunt, then working part-time in the Royal Library as well as for British intelligence, to Friedrichshof in March 1945 to secure papers relating to the German Empress Victoria, the eldest child of Queen Victoria. Looters had stolen part of the castle's archive, including surviving letters between daughter and mother, as well as other valuables, some of which were recovered in Chicago after the war. The papers rescued by Morshead and Blunt, and those returned by the American authorities from Chicago, were deposited in the Royal Archives.[115] In the late 1950s, documents recovered by U.S. troops in Marburg, Germany, in May 1945, since titled the Marburg Files, were published following more than a decade of suppression, enhancing theories of the Duke's sympathies for Nazi ideologies.[116][117] After the war, the Duke admitted in his memoirs that he admired the Germans, but he denied being pro-Nazi. Of Hitler he wrote: "[the] Führer struck me as a somewhat ridiculous figure, with his theatrical posturings and his bombastic pretensions."[118] In the 1950s, journalist Frank Giles heard the Duke blame British Foreign Secretary Anthony Eden for helping to "precipitate the war through his treatment of Mussolini ... that's what [Eden] did, he helped to bring on the war ... and of course Roosevelt and the Jews".[119] During the 1960s the Duke said privately to a friend, Patrick Balfour, 3rd Baron Kinross, "I never thought Hitler was such a bad chap."[120] Later life The Duke of Windsor in 1945 Clementine (far left) and Winston Churchill with the Duke of Windsor on the French Riviera in 1948 At the end of the war, the couple returned to France and spent the remainder of their lives essentially in retirement as the Duke never held another official role. Correspondence between the Duke and Kenneth de Courcy, dated between 1946 and 1949, emerged in a U.S. library in 2009. The letters suggest a scheme where the Duke would return to England and place himself in a position for a possible regency. The health of George VI was failing and de Courcy was concerned about the influence of the Mountbatten family over the young Princess Elizabeth. De Courcy suggested the Duke buy a working agricultural estate within an easy drive of London in order to gain favour with the British public and make himself available should the King become incapacitated. The Duke, however, hesitated and the King recovered from his surgery.[121] The Duke's allowance was supplemented by government favours and illegal currency trading.[13][122][123] The City of Paris provided the Duke with a house at 4 route du Champ d'Entraînement, on the Neuilly-sur-Seine side of the Bois de Boulogne, for a nominal rent.[124] The French government also exempted him from paying income tax,[122][125] and the couple were able to buy goods duty-free through the British embassy and the military commissary.[125] In 1952, they bought and renovated a weekend country retreat, Le Moulin de la Tuilerie at Gif-sur-Yvette, the only property the couple ever owned themselves.[126] In 1951, the Duke had produced a ghost-written memoir, A King's Story, in which he expressed disagreement with liberal politics.[19] The royalties from the book added to their income.[122] The Duke and duch*ess effectively took on the role of celebrities and were regarded as part of café society in the 1950s and 1960s. They hosted parties and shuttled between Paris and New York; Gore Vidal, who met the Windsors socially, reported on the vacuity of the Duke's conversation.[127] The couple doted on the pug dogs they kept.[128] In June 1953, instead of attending the coronation of Queen Elizabeth II, his niece, in London, the Duke and duch*ess watched the ceremony on television in Paris. The Duke said that it was contrary to precedent for a Sovereign or former Sovereign to attend any coronation of another. He was paid to write articles on the ceremony for the Sunday Express and Woman's Home Companion, as well as a short book, The Crown and the People, 1902–1953.[129] U.S. President Richard Nixon and the Duke and duch*ess of Windsor in 1970 In 1955, they visited President Dwight D. Eisenhower at the White House. The couple appeared on Edward R. Murrow's television-interview show Person to Person in 1956,[130] and in a 50-minute BBC television interview in 1970. On 4 April of that year President Richard Nixon invited them as guests of honour to a dinner at the White House with Chief Justice Warren E. Burger, Charles Lindbergh, Alice Roosevelt Longworth, Arnold Palmer, George H. W. Bush, and Frank Borman.[131][132] The royal family never fully accepted the duch*ess. Queen Mary refused to receive her formally. However, Edward sometimes met his mother and his brother, George VI; he attended George's funeral in 1952. Queen Mary remained angry with Edward and indignant over his marriage to Wallis: "To give up all this for that", she said.[133] In 1965, the Duke and duch*ess returned to London. They were visited by Elizabeth II, his sister-in-law Princess Marina, duch*ess of Kent, and his sister Mary, Princess Royal and Countess of Harewood. A week later, the Princess Royal died, and they attended her memorial service. In 1967, they joined the royal family for the centenary of Queen Mary's birth. The last royal ceremony the Duke attended was the funeral of Princess Marina in 1968.[134] He declined an invitation from Elizabeth II to attend the investiture of the Prince of Wales in 1969, replying that Prince Charles would not want his "aged great-uncle" there.[135] In the 1960s, the Duke's health deteriorated. Michael E. DeBakey operated on him in Houston for an aneurysm of the abdominal aorta in December 1964, and Sir Stewart Duke-Elder treated a detached retina in his left eye in February 1965. In late 1971, the Duke, who was a smoker from an early age, was diagnosed with throat cancer and underwent cobalt therapy. On 18 May 1972, Queen Elizabeth II visited the Duke and duch*ess of Windsor while on a state visit to France; she spoke with the Duke for fifteen minutes, but only the duch*ess appeared with the royal party for a photocall as the Duke was too ill.[136] Death and legacy Edward's grave at the Royal Burial Ground, Frogmore On 28 May 1972, ten days after the Queen's visit, the Duke died at his home in Paris, less than a month before his 78th birthday. His body was returned to Britain, lying in state at St George's Chapel, Windsor Castle. The funeral service took place in the chapel on 5 June in the presence of the Queen, the royal family, and the duch*ess of Windsor, who stayed at Buckingham Palace during her visit. He was buried in the Royal Burial Ground behind the Royal Mausoleum of Queen Victoria and Prince Albert at Frogmore.[137] Until a 1965 agreement with the Queen, the Duke and duch*ess had planned for a burial in a cemetery plot they had purchased at Green Mount Cemetery in Baltimore, where the duch*ess's father was interred.[138] Frail, and suffering increasingly from dementia, the duch*ess died in 1986, and was buried alongside her husband.[139] In the view of historians, such as Philip Williamson writing in 2007, the popular perception in the 21st century that the abdication was driven by politics rather than religious morality is false and arises because divorce has become much more common and socially acceptable. To modern sensibilities, the religious restrictions that prevented Edward from continuing as king while planning to marry Simpson "seem, wrongly, to provide insufficient explanation" for his abdication.[140] Honours and arms Royal Standard of the Duke of Windsor Honours Portrait of Edward in the robes of the Order of the Garter by Arthur Stockdale Cope, 1912 British Commonwealth and Empire honours KG: Royal Knight of the Garter, 1910[141] MC: Military Cross, 1916[142] GCMG: Grand Master and Knight Grand Cross of St Michael and St George, 1917[141] GBE: Grand Master and Knight Grand Cross of the British Empire, 1917[141] ADC: Personal aide-de-camp, 3 June 1919[143] GCVO: Knight Grand Cross of the Royal Victorian Order, 1920[141] PC: Privy Counsellor, (United Kingdom) 1920[141] GCSI: Knight Grand Commander of the Star of India, 1921[141] GCIE: Knight Grand Commander of the Indian Empire, 1921[141] Royal Victorian Chain, 1921[141] KT: Extra Knight of the Thistle, 1922[141] GCStJ: Bailiff Grand Cross of St John, 12 June 1926[144] KStJ: Knight of Justice of St John, 2 June 1917[145] KP: Knight of St Patrick, 1927[141] PC: Privy Councillor of Canada, 1927[146] GCB: Knight Grand Cross of the Bath, 1936[141] ISO: Companion of the Imperial Service Order, 23 June 1910[147] FRS: Royal Fellow of the Royal Society[141] Foreign honours Grand Duchy of Hesse Knight of the Golden Lion, 23 June 1911[148] Spain Knight of the Golden Fleece, 22 June 1912[149] French Third Republic Grand Cross of the Legion of Honour, August 1912[150] Denmark Knight of the Elephant, 17 March 1914[151] Norway Grand Cross of St. Olav, with Collar, 6 April 1914[152] Kingdom of Italy Knight of the Annunciation, 21 June 1915[153] French Third Republic Croix de Guerre, 1915 Russian Empire Knight of St. George, 3rd Class, 1916[154] Thailand Knight of the Order of the Royal House of Chakri, 16 August 1917[155] Kingdom of Romania Order of Michael the Brave, 1st Class, 1918[154] Kingdom of Italy War Merit Cross, 1919 Kingdom of Egypt Grand Cordon of the Order of Mohamed Ali, 1922[154] Sweden Knight of the Seraphim, 12 November 1923[156] Kingdom of Romania Collar of the Order of Carol I, 1924[154] Chile Order of Merit, 1st Class, 1925[154] Bolivia Grand Cross of the Condor of the Andes, 1931[154] Peru Grand Cross of the Sun of Peru, 1931[154] Portugal Grand Cross of the Sash of the Two Orders, 25 April 1931 – during his visit to Lisbon[157] Brazil Grand Cross of the Southern Cross, 1933[154] San Marino Grand Cross of St. Agatha, 1935[154] Military ranks 22 June 1911: Midshipman, Royal Navy[158] 17 March 1913: Lieutenant, Royal Navy[158] 18 November 1914: Lieutenant, 1st Battalion, Grenadier Guards, British Army. (First World War, Flanders and Italy)[158] 10 March 1916: Captain, British Army[158] 1918: Temporary Major, British Army[158] 15 April 1919: Colonel, British Army[158] 8 July 1919: Captain, Royal Navy[158] 5 December 1922: Group Captain, Royal Air Force[158][159] 1 September 1930: Vice-Admiral, Royal Navy; Lieutenant-General, British Army;[160] Air Marshal, Royal Air Force[161] 1 January 1935: Admiral, Royal Navy; General, British Army; Air Chief Marshal, Royal Air Force[162] 21 January 1936: Admiral of the Fleet, Royal Navy; Field Marshal, British Army; Marshal of the Royal Air Force[158] 3 September 1939: Major-General, British Army[163] Arms Edward's coat of arms as the Prince of Wales was the royal coat of arms of the United Kingdom, differenced with a label of three points argent, with an inescutcheon representing Wales surmounted by a coronet (identical to those of Charles III when he was Prince of Wales). As Sovereign, he bore the royal arms undifferenced. After his abdication, he used the arms again differenced by a label of three points argent, but this time with the centre point bearing an imperial crown.[164] Coat of arms as Prince of Wales (granted 1911)[165] Coat of arms as Prince of Wales (granted 1911)[165] Coat of arms as King of the United Kingdom Coat of arms as King of the United Kingdom Scottish coat of arms as King of the United Kingdom Scottish coat of arms as King of the United Kingdom Coat of arms as Duke of Windsor Coat of arms as Duke of Windsor Ancestry Ancestors of Edward VIII[166] See also Cultural depictions of Edward VIII of the United Kingdom Abandoned coronation of Edward VIII List of prime ministers of Edward VIII Notes The instrument of abdication was signed on 10 December, and given legislative form by His Majesty's Declaration of Abdication Act 1936 the following day. The parliament of the Union of South Africa retroactively approved the abdication with effect from 10 December, and the Irish Free State recognised the abdication on 12 December.[1] His twelve godparents were: Queen Victoria (his paternal great-grandmother); the King and Queen of Denmark (his paternal great-grandparents, for whom his maternal uncle Prince Adolphus of Teck and his paternal aunt the duch*ess of Fife stood proxy); the King of Württemberg (his mother's distant cousin, for whom his granduncle the Duke of Connaught stood proxy); the Queen of Greece (his grandaunt, for whom his paternal aunt Princess Victoria of Wales stood proxy); the Duke of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha (his granduncle, for whom Prince Louis of Battenberg stood proxy); the Prince and Princess of Wales (his paternal grandparents); the Tsarevich (his father's cousin); the Duke of Cambridge (his maternal granduncle and Queen Victoria's cousin); and the Duke and duch*ess of Teck (his maternal grandparents).[3] There were fifteen separate copies – one for each Dominion, the Irish Free State, India, the House of Commons, the House of Lords and the Prime Minister, among others.[71] She had asked Alec Hardinge to write to the Duke explaining that he could not be invited to his father's memorial.[83] References Heard, Andrew (1990), Canadian Independence, Simon Fraser University, Canada, archived from the original on 21 February 2009, retrieved 1 May 2010 Windsor, p. 1 "No. 26533". The London Gazette. 20 July 1894. p. 4145. Ziegler, p. 5 Ziegler, p. 6 Windsor, p. 7; Ziegler, p. 9 Wheeler-Bennett, pp. 16–17 Windsor, pp. 25–28 Ziegler, pp. 30–31 Windsor, pp. 38–39 Ziegler, p. 79 Parker, pp. 12–13 Matthew, H. C. G. (September 2004; online edition January 2008) "Edward VIII, later Prince Edward, duke of Windsor (1894–1972)" Archived 5 June 2015 at the Wayback Machine, Oxford Dictionary of National Biography, Oxford University Press, doi:10.1093/ref:odnb/31061, retrieved 1 May 2010 (Subscription required) Parker, pp. 13–14 Parker, pp. 14–16 "No. 28387". The London Gazette. 23 June 1910. p. 4473. "The Prince of Wales Starts Play" (PDF), Polo Monthly, p. 300, June 1914, archived from the original (PDF) on 30 July 2018, retrieved 30 July 2018 Weir, Alison (1996), Britain's Royal Families: The Complete Genealogy Revised edition, London: Pimlico, p. 327, ISBN 978-0-7126-7448-5 Windsor, p. 78 Ziegler, pp. 26–27 Windsor, pp. 106–107 and Ziegler, pp. 48–50 Roberts, p. 41 and Windsor, p. 109 Ziegler, p. 111 and Windsor, p. 140 Edward VIII (Jan–Dec 1936), Official website of the British monarchy, 12 January 2016, archived from the original on 7 May 2016, retrieved 18 April 2016 "Death of Youngest Son of King and Queen". Daily Mirror. 20 January 1919. p. 2. Ziegler, p. 80 Tizley, Paul (director) (2008), Prince John: The Windsors' Tragic Secret Archived 8 November 2013 at the Wayback Machine (Documentary), London: Channel 4, retrieved 26 April 2017 Broad, Lewis (1961), The Abdication: Twenty-five Years After. A Re-appraisal, London: Frederick Muller Ltd, pp. 4–5 Flusser, Alan J. (2002), Dressing the man: mastering the art of permanent fashion, New York, NY: HarperCollins, p. 8, ISBN 0-06-019144-9, OCLC 48475087 Windsor, p. 215 Voisey, Paul (2004), High River and the Times: an Alberta community and its weekly newspaper, 1905–1966, Edmonton, Alberta: University of Alberta, p. 129, ISBN 978-0-88864-411-4 Staff writers (6 July 2017), "Remarkable photographs show how Edward VIII narrowly escaped death in train crash", Daily Express, archived from the original on 11 November 2020, retrieved 17 January 2021 Windsor, pp. 226–228 Erskine, Barry, Oropesa (II), Pacific Steam Navigation Company, archived from the original on 4 March 2016, retrieved 15 December 2013 "Arrival at Windsor by Air", The Straits Times, National Library, Singapore, 30 April 1931, archived from the original on 29 October 2014, retrieved 18 December 2013 "Princes Home", The Advertiser and Register, National Library of Australia, p. 19, 1 May 1931, archived from the original on 25 November 2021, retrieved 18 December 2013 Ziegler, pp. 158, 448 Godfrey, Rupert, ed. (1998), "11 July 1920", Letters From a Prince: Edward to Mrs. Freda Dudley Ward 1918–1921, Little, Brown & Co, ISBN 978-0-7515-2590-8 Grant, Philip (January 2012), The British Empire Exhibition, 1924/25 (PDF), Brent Council, archived (PDF) from the original on 16 May 2017, retrieved 18 July 2016 Rose, Andrew (2013), The Prince, the Princess and the Perfect Murder, Hodder & Stoughton reviewed in Stonehouse, Cheryl (5 April 2013), "A new book brings to light the scandalous story of Edward VIII's first great love", Express Newspapers, archived from the original on 19 September 2020, retrieved 1 July 2020 See also: Godfrey, pp. 138, 143, 299; Ziegler, pp. 89–90 Middlemas, Keith; Barnes, John (1969), Baldwin: A Biography, London: Weidenfeld and Nicolson, p. 976, ISBN 978-0-297-17859-0 Airlie, Mabell (1962), Thatched with Gold, London: Hutchinson, p. 197 "Foreign News: P'incess Is Three", Time, 29 April 1929, archived from the original on 27 February 2014, retrieved 1 May 2010 Windsor, p. 235 Ziegler, p. 233 Windsor, p. 255 Bradford, p. 142 Bowcott, Owen; Bates, Stephen (30 January 2003), "Car dealer was Wallis Simpson's secret lover", The Guardian, London, archived from the original on 28 December 2013, retrieved 1 May 2010 Ziegler, pp. 231–234 Windsor, p. 265; Ziegler, p. 245 Ziegler, pp. 273–274 Windsor, pp. 293–294 A. Michie, God Save The Queen "The coins of Edward VIII", Royal Mint Museum, September 2012, retrieved 22 September 2022 Coinage and bank notes, Official website of the British monarchy, 15 January 2016, archived from the original on 7 May 2016, retrieved 18 April 2016 "George Andrew McMahon: attempt on the life of H.M. King Edward VIII at Constitution Hill on 16 July 1936", MEPO 3/1713, The National Archives, Kew, 2003, archived from the original on 7 December 2016, retrieved 28 May 2018 Cook, Andrew (3 January 2003), "The plot thickens", The Guardian, London, archived from the original on 3 February 2014, retrieved 1 May 2010 Broad, pp. 56–57 Broad, pp. 44–47; Windsor, pp. 314–315, 351–353; Ziegler, pp. 294–296, 307–308 Windsor, pp. 330–331 Pearce, Robert; Graham, Goodlad (2013), British Prime Ministers From Balfour to Brown, Routledge, p. 80, ISBN 978-0-415-66983-2, archived from the original on 4 January 2019, retrieved 3 January 2019 Windsor, p. 346 Windsor, p. 354 Statute of Westminster 1931 c.4, UK Statute Law Database, archived from the original on 13 October 2010, retrieved 1 May 2010 Ziegler, pp. 305–307 Bradford, p. 187 Bradford, p. 188 Windsor, pp. 354–355 Beaverbrook, Lord (1966), Taylor, A. J. P. (ed.), The Abdication of King Edward VIII, London: Hamish Hamilton, p. 57 Windsor, p. 387 Windsor, p. 407 "The Abdication of Edward VIII", Maclean's, 15 January 1937, archived from the original on 4 January 2019, retrieved 3 January 2019 Edward VIII, Broadcast after his abdication, 11 December 1936 (PDF), Official website of the British monarchy, archived from the original (PDF) on 12 May 2012, retrieved 1 May 2010 Ziegler, p. 336 "No. 34349". The London Gazette. 12 December 1936. p. 8111. Clive Wigram's conversation with Sir Claud Schuster, Clerk to the Crown and Permanent Secretary to the Lord Chancellor quoted in Bradford, p. 201 Attorney General to Home Secretary (14 April 1937) National Archives file HO 144/22945 quoted in Velde, François (6 February 2006) The drafting of the letters patent of 1937 Archived 17 June 2006 at the Wayback Machine. 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(2021), Five Ways to Compute the Relative Value of a UK Pound Amount, 1270 to Present, MeasuringWorth, retrieved 5 October 2022 Ziegler, p. 349 Ziegler, p. 384 Donaldson, pp. 331–332 "When the Duke of Windsor met Adolf Hitler", BBC News, 10 March 2016, archived from the original on 23 November 2016, retrieved 21 July 2018 Papers of Count Albert von Mensdorff-Pouilly-Dietrichstein (1861–1945) in the State Archives, Vienna, quoted in Rose, Kenneth (1983), King George V, London: Weidenfeld and Nicolson, p. 391, ISBN 978-0-297-78245-2 Windsor, p. 122 Speer, Albert (1970), Inside the Third Reich, New York: Macmillan, p. 118 Ziegler, p. 317 Bradford, p. 285; Ziegler, pp. 398–399 David Reynolds, "Verdun – The Sacred Wound", episode 2. BBC Radio 4, first broadcast 24 February 2016. Terry Charman, "The Day We Went to War", 2009, p. 28. Bradford, p. 285 The Times, 8 May 1939, p. 13 e.g. The Times, 9 May 1939, p. 13 No. 621: Minister Zech to State Secretary Weizsäcker, 19 February 1940, in Documents on German Foreign Policy 1918–1945 (1954), Series D, Volume VIII, p. 785, quoted in Bradford, p. 434 McCormick, Donald (1963), The Mask of Merlin: A Critical Biography of David Lloyd George, New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston, p. 290, LCCN 64-20102 Bloch, p. 91 Bloch, pp. 86, 102; Ziegler, pp. 430–432 Ziegler, p. 434 Bloch, p. 93 Bloch, pp. 93–94, 98–103, 119 Bloch, p. 119; Ziegler, pp. 441–442 Bloch, p. 364 Bloch, pp. 154–159, 230–233; Luciak, Ilja (2012), "The Life of Axel Wenner-Gren–An Introduction" (PDF), in Luciak, Ilja; Daneholt, Bertil (eds.), Reality and Myth: A Symposium on Axel Wenner-Gren, Stockholm: Wenner-Gren Stiftelsirna, pp. 12–30, archived (PDF) from the original on 8 July 2016, retrieved 6 November 2016 Ziegler, p. 448 Ziegler, pp. 471–472 Ziegler, p. 392 Bloch, pp. 79–80 Roberts, p. 52 Morton, Andrew (2015), 17 Carnations: The Windsors, The Nazis and The Cover-Up, Michael O'Mara Books, ISBN 9781782434658, archived from the original on 21 June 2020, retrieved 25 May 2015 Bloch, p. 178 Evans, Rob; Hencke, David (29 June 2002), "Wallis Simpson, the Nazi minister, the telltale monk and an FBI plot", The Guardian, London, archived from the original on 26 August 2013, retrieved 2 May 2010 Higham, Charles (1988), The duch*ess of Windsor: The Secret Life, New York: McGraw-Hill Publishers, pp. 388–389 Bradford, p. 426 Fane Saunders, Tristram (14 December 2017), "The Duke, the Nazis, and a very British cover-up: the true story behind The Crown's Marburg Files", The Telegraph, archived from the original on 14 August 2018, retrieved 14 August 2018 Miller, Julie (9 December 2017), The Crown: Edward's Alleged Nazi Sympathies Exposed, Vanity Fair, archived from the original on 6 February 2018, retrieved 14 August 2018 Windsor, p. 277 Sebba, Anne (1 November 2011), "Wallis Simpson, 'That Woman' After the Abdication", The New York Times, archived from the original on 5 November 2011, retrieved 7 November 2011 Lord Kinross, Love conquers all in Books and Bookmen, vol. 20 (1974), p. 50: "He indeed remarked to me, some twenty-five years later, 'I never thought Hitler was such a bad chap'." Wilson, Christopher (22 November 2009), "Revealed: the Duke and duch*ess of Windsor's secret plot to deny the Queen the throne", The Telegraph, archived from the original on 8 August 2017, retrieved 6 August 2017 Roberts, p. 53 Bradford, p. 442 Ziegler, pp. 534–535 Bradford, p. 446 "Le Moulin – History", The Landmark Trust, archived from the original on 31 January 2019, retrieved 30 January 2019 Vidal, Gore (1995), Palimpsest: a memoir, New York: Random House, p. 206, ISBN 978-0-679-44038-3 Farquhar, Michael (2001), A Treasury of Royal Scandals, New York: Penguin Books, p. 48, ISBN 978-0-7394-2025-6 Ziegler, pp. 539–540 "Peep Show", Time, 8 October 1956, archived from the original on 26 February 2014, retrieved 2 May 2010 Robenalt, James D. (2015). January 1973: Watergate, Roe v. Wade, Vietnam, and the Month that Changed America Forever. Chicago, Ill.: Chicago Review Press. ISBN 978-1-61374-967-8. OCLC 906705247. UPI. "Duke, duch*ess Have Dinner With Nixons" The Times-News (Hendersonville, North Carolina) 6 April 1970; p. 13 Bradford, p. 198 Ziegler, pp. 554–556 Ziegler, p. 555 Duke too ill for tea with the Queen, BBC, 18 May 1972, archived from the original on 30 August 2017, retrieved 24 October 2017 Ziegler, pp. 556–557 Rasmussen, Frederick (29 April 1986), "Windsors had a plot at Green Mount", The Baltimore Sun Simple funeral rites for duch*ess, BBC, 29 April 1986, archived from the original on 30 December 2007, retrieved 2 May 2010 Williamson, Philip (2007), "The monarchy and public values 1910–1953", in Olechnowicz, Andrzej (ed.), The monarchy and the British nation, 1780 to the present, Cambridge University Press, p. 225, ISBN 978-0-521-84461-1 Kelly's Handbook, 98th ed. (1972), p. 41 "No. 29608". The London Gazette (Supplement). 2 June 1916. p. 5570. "No. 13453". The Edinburgh Gazette. 5 June 1919. p. 1823. "No. 33284". The London Gazette. 14 June 1927. p. 3836. "No. 30114". The London Gazette. 5 June 1917. p. 5514. Privy Council Office (1 February 2012), Historical Alphabetical List since 1867 of Members of the Queen's Privy Council for Canada, archived from the original on 21 April 2012, retrieved 29 March 2012 "No. 34917". The London Gazette. 9 August 1940. p. 4875. The Prince of Wales is ex-officio a Companion of the Imperial Service Order. "Goldener Löwen-orden", Großherzoglich Hessische Ordensliste (in German), Darmstadt: Staatsverlag, 1914, p. 3, archived from the original on 6 September 2021, retrieved 17 September 2021 – via hathitrust.org "Caballeros de la insigne orden del toisón de oro", Guóa Oficial de España (in Spanish): 217, 1930, archived from the original on 20 June 2018, retrieved 4 March 2019 M. & B. Wattel (2009), Les Grand'Croix de la Légion d'honneur de 1805 à nos jours. Titulaires français et étrangers, Paris: Archives & Culture, p. 461, ISBN 978-2-35077-135-9 Bille-Hansen, A. C.; Holck, Harald, eds. (1933) [1st pub.:1801], Statshaandbog for Kongeriget Danmark for Aaret 1933 [State Manual of the Kingdom of Denmark for the Year 1933] (PDF), Kongelig Dansk Hof- og Statskalender (in Danish), Copenhagen: J.H. Schultz A.-S. Universitetsbogtrykkeri, p. 17, archived (PDF) from the original on 24 December 2019, retrieved 16 September 2019 – via da:DIS Danmark "Den kongelige norske Sanct Olavs Orden", Norges Statskalender (in Norwegian), 1922, pp. 1173–1174, archived from the original on 17 September 2021, retrieved 17 September 2021 – via hathitrust.org Italy. Ministero dell'interno (1920), Calendario generale del regno d'Italia, p. 58, archived from the original on 25 November 2021, retrieved 8 October 2020 Montgomery-Massingberd, Hugh, ed. (1977), Burke's Royal Families of the World (1st ed.), London: Burke's Peerage, pp. 311–312, ISBN 978-0-85011-023-4 พระราชทานเครื่องราชอิสริยาภรณ์ มหาจักรีบรมราชวงศ์ (PDF), Royal Thai Government Gazette (in Thai), 19 August 1917, archived (PDF) from the original on 4 September 2020, retrieved 8 May 2019 Sveriges statskalender (in Swedish), vol. II, 1940, p. 7, archived from the original on 7 January 2018, retrieved 6 January 2018 – via runeberg.org "Banda da Grã-Cruz das Duas Ordens: Eduardo Alberto Cristiano Jorge André Patrício David, Príncipe de Gales Archived 26 July 2020 at the Wayback Machine" (in Portuguese), Arquivo Histórico da Presidência da República, retrieved 28 November 2019 co*kayne, G.E.; Doubleday, H.A.; Howard de Walden, Lord (1940), The Complete Peerage, London: St. Catherine's Press, vol. XIII, pp. 116–117 "No. 32774". The London Gazette. 5 December 1922. p. 8615. "No. 33640". The London Gazette. 2 September 1930. p. 5424. "No. 33640". The London Gazette. 2 September 1930. p. 5428. "No. 34119". The London Gazette (Supplement). 28 December 1934. p. 15. The Times, 19 September 1939, p. 6, col. F Prothero, David (24 September 2002), Flags of the Royal Family, United Kingdom, archived from the original on 31 March 2010, retrieved 2 May 2010 "No. 28473". The London Gazette. 7 March 1911. p. 1939. Montgomery-Massingberd, Hugh, ed. (1973), "The Royal Lineage", Burke's Guide to the Royal Family, London: Burke's Peerage, pp. 252, 293, 307, ISBN 0-220-66222-3 Bibliography Bloch, Michael (1982). The Duke of Windsor's War. London: Weidenfeld and Nicolson. ISBN 0-297-77947-8. Bradford, Sarah (1989). King George VI. London: Weidenfeld and Nicolson. ISBN 0-297-79667-4. Donaldson, Frances (1974). Edward VIII. London: Weidenfeld and Nicolson. ISBN 0-297-76787-9. Godfrey, Rupert (editor) (1998). Letters From a Prince: Edward to Mrs Freda Dudley Ward 1918–1921. Little, Brown & Co. ISBN 0-7515-2590-1. Parker, John (1988). King of Fools. New York: St. Martin's Press. ISBN 0-312-02598-X. Roberts, Andrew; edited by Antonia Fraser (2000). The House of Windsor. London: Cassell and Co. ISBN 0-304-35406-6. Wheeler-Bennett, Sir John (1958). King George VI. London: Macmillan. Williams, Susan (2003). The People's King: The True Story of the Abdication. London: Allen Lane. ISBN 978-0-7139-9573-2. Windsor, The Duke of (1951). A King's Story. London: Cassell and Co. Ziegler, Philip (1991). King Edward VIII: The official biography. New York: Alfred A. Knopf. ISBN 0-394-57730-2. External links Edward VIII at Wikipedia's sister projects Media from Commons Quotations from Wikiquote Texts from Wikisource Data from Wikidata "Archival material relating to Edward VIII". UK National Archives. Edit this at Wikidata Portraits of Edward, Duke of Windsor at the National Portrait Gallery, London Edit this at Wikidata Newspaper clippings about Edward VIII in the 20th Century Press Archives of the ZBW Edward VIII House of Windsor Cadet branch of the House of Wettin Born: 23 June 1894 Died: 28 May 1972 Regnal titles Preceded by George V King of the United Kingdom and the British Dominions; Emperor of India 20 January – 11 December 1936 Succeeded by George VI British royalty Preceded by George (V) Prince of Wales Duke of Cornwall; Duke of Rothesay 1910–1936 Vacant Title next held by Charles (III) Government offices Preceded by Sir Charles Dundas Governor of the Bahamas 1940–1945 Succeeded by Sir William Lindsay Murphy Honorary titles Vacant Title last held by The Prince of Wales Grand Master of the Order of St Michael and St George 1917–1936 Succeeded by The Earl of Athlone New title Grand Master of the Order of the British Empire 1917–1936 Succeeded by Queen Mary Air Commodore-in-Chief of the Auxiliary Air Force 1932–1936 Succeeded by King George VI Academic offices New office Chancellor of the University of Cape Town 1918–1936 Succeeded by Jan Smuts Articles and topics related to Edward VIII vte Abdication of Edward VIII Edward VIII Wallis Simpson People Royal Family Prince Albert (Edward VIII's brother, later George VI) Prince Henry (Edward VIII's brother) Prince George (Edward VIII's brother) Queen Mary (Edward VIII's mother) Officials Stanley Baldwin (Prime Minister of the United Kingdom) Clement Attlee (Leader of the Opposition in the United Kingdom) Winston Churchill (MP and supporter of Edward VIII) William Lyon Mackenzie King (Prime Minister of Canada) Joseph Lyons (Prime Minister of Australia) Michael Joseph Savage (Prime Minister of New Zealand) J. B. M. Hertzog (Prime Minister of South Africa) Éamon de Valera (President of the Executive Council of the Irish Free State) Stanley Bruce (High Commissioner of Australia to the United Kingdom) Clergy Cosmo Gordon Lang (Archbishop of Canterbury) Alfred Blunt (Bishop of Bradford) Other Alec Hardinge (Edward VIII's private secretary) Alan Lascelles (Edward VIII's assistant private secretary) Walter Monckton (advisor to Edward VIII) John Theodore Goddard (Mrs Simpson's solicitor) Ernest Simpson (Mrs Simpson's husband) Legal documents His Majesty's Declaration of Abdication Act 1936 (United Kingdom) Executive Authority (External Relations) Act 1936 (Ireland) His Majesty King Edward the Eighth's Abdication Act, 1937 (South Africa) Succession to the Throne Act, 1937 (Canada) Cultural depictions Edward & Mrs. Simpson (1978) The Woman He Loved (1988) Bertie and Elizabeth (2002) Wallis & Edward (2005) The King's Speech (2010) W.E. (2012) The Crown (S1 E3): "Windsor" (2016) Related events Abandoned coronation of Edward VIII 1937 tour of Germany by the Duke and duch*ess of Windsor Funeral of Edward, Duke of Windsor vte English, Scottish and British monarchs Monarchs of England until 1603 Monarchs of Scotland until 1603 Alfred the Great Edward the Elder Ælfweard Æthelstan Edmund I Eadred Eadwig Edgar the Peaceful Edward the Martyr Æthelred the Unready Sweyn Edmund Ironside cnu*t Harold I Harthacnu*t Edward the Confessor Harold Godwinson Edgar Ætheling William I William II Henry I Stephen Matilda Henry II Henry the Young King Richard I John Henry III Edward I Edward II Edward III Richard II Henry IV Henry V Henry VI Edward IV Edward V Richard III Henry VII Henry VIII Edward VI Jane Mary I and Philip Elizabeth I Kenneth I MacAlpin Donald I Constantine I Áed Giric Eochaid Donald II Constantine II Malcolm I Indulf Dub Cuilén Amlaíb Kenneth II Constantine III Kenneth III Malcolm II Duncan I Macbeth Lulach Malcolm III Donald III Duncan II Edgar Alexander I David I Malcolm IV William I Alexander II Alexander III Margaret John Robert I David II Edward Balliol Robert II Robert III James I James II James III James IV James V Mary I James VI Monarchs of England and Scotland after the Union of the Crowns from 1603 James I and VI Charles I Charles II James II and VII William III and II and Mary II Anne British monarchs after the Acts of Union 1707 Anne George I George II George III George IV William IV Victoria Edward VII George V Edward VIII George VI Elizabeth II Charles III Debatable or disputed rulers are in italics. vte Emperors of India Victoria Edward VII George V Edward VIII George VI vte Monarchy in Canada The Crown Monarchy in the Canadian provinces BC AB SK MB ON QC NB NS PE NL Monarchs Victoria Edward VII George V Edward VIII George VI Elizabeth II Charles III Viceroys Governor General of Canada List Lieutenant governors in Canada BC List AB List SK List MB List ON List QC List NB List NS List PE List NL List Territorial Commissioners Advisory Committee on Vice-Regal Appointments Constitutional King-in-Council King-in-Parliament King-on-the-Bench King's peace The Canadian Crown and the Canadian Armed Forces The Canadian Crown and Indigenous peoples of Canada Legal Crown copyright Crown corporations King's Consent King's Printer Royal charter Royal commissions Ceremonial and symbolic Chapels Royal Crown Collection Royal symbols Royal tours 1786–1999 2000–present Special address Title and style Related Canadian Secretary to the King History of monarchy in Canada Debate on the monarchy in Canada vte British princes The generations indicate descent from George I, who formalised the use of the titles prince and princess for members of the British royal family. 1st generation King George II 2nd generation Frederick, Prince of Wales Prince George William Prince William, Duke of Cumberland 3rd generation King George III Prince Edward, Duke of York and Albany Prince William Henry, Duke of Gloucester and Edinburgh Prince Henry, Duke of Cumberland and Strathearn Prince Frederick 4th generation King George IV Prince Frederick, Duke of York and Albany King William IV Prince Edward, Duke of Kent and Strathearn King Ernest Augustus of Hanover Prince Augustus Frederick, Duke of Sussex Prince Adolphus, Duke of Cambridge Prince Octavius Prince Alfred Prince William Frederick, Duke of Gloucester and Edinburgh 5th generation Prince Albert1 King George V of Hanover Prince George, Duke of Cambridge 6th generation King Edward VII Prince Alfred, Duke of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha Prince Arthur, Duke of Connaught and Strathearn Prince Leopold, Duke of Albany Prince Ernest Augustus 7th generation Prince Albert Victor, Duke of Clarence and Avondale King George V Prince Alexander John of Wales Alfred, Hereditary Prince of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha Prince Arthur of Connaught Prince Charles Edward, Duke of Albany and of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha Prince George William of Hanover Prince Christian of Hanover Prince Ernest Augustus, Duke of Brunswick 8th generation King Edward VIII King George VI Prince Henry, Duke of Gloucester Prince George, Duke of Kent Prince John Alastair, 2nd Duke of Connaught and Strathearn Johann Leopold, Hereditary Prince of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha Prince Hubertus of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha Prince Ernest Augustus of Hanover Prince George William of Hanover 9th generation Prince Philip, Duke of Edinburgh2 Prince William of Gloucester Prince Richard, Duke of Gloucester Prince Edward, Duke of Kent Prince Michael of Kent 10th generation King Charles III Prince Andrew, Duke of York Prince Edward, Earl of Wessex and Forfar 11th generation William, Prince of Wales Prince Harry, Duke of Sussex James Mountbatten-Windsor, Viscount Severn3 12th generation Prince George of Wales Prince Louis of Wales Archie Mountbatten-Windsor3 1 Not a British prince by birth, but created Prince Consort. 2 Not a British prince by birth, but created a Prince of the United Kingdom. 3 Status debatable; see James, Viscount Severn#Titles and styles and Archie Mountbatten-Windsor#Title and succession for details. Princes that lost their title and status or did not use the title are shown in italics. vte Princes of Wales Edward (1301–1307) Edward (1343–1376) Richard (1376–1377) Henry (1399–1413) Edward (1454–1471) Richard (1460; disputed) Edward (1471–1483) Edward (1483–1484) Arthur (1489–1502) Henry (1504–1509) Edward (1537–1547) Henry (1610–1612) Charles (1616–1625) Charles (1641–1649) James (1688) George (1714–1727) Frederick (1729–1751) George (1751–1760) George (1762–1820) Albert Edward (1841–1901) George (1901–1910) Edward (1910–1936) Charles (1958–2022) William (2022–present) See also: Principality of Wales vte Dukes of Cornwall Edward (1337–1376) Richard (1376–1377) Henry (1399–1413) Henry (1421–1422) Edward (1453–1471) Richard (1460; disputed) Edward (1470–1483) Edward (1483–1484) Arthur (1486–1502) Henry (1502–1509) Henry (1511) Edward (1537–1547) Henry Frederick (1603–1612) Charles (1612–1625) Charles (1630–1649) James (1688–1701/2) George (1714–1727) Frederick (1727–1751) George (1762–1820) Albert Edward (1841–1901) George (1901–1910) Edward (1910–1936) Charles (1952–2022) William (2022–present) Cornwall Portal vte Dukes of Rothesay David (1398–1402) James (1402–1406) Alexander (1430) James (1430–1437) James (1452–1460) James (1473–1488) James (1507–1508) Arthur (1509–1510) James (1512–1513) James (1540–1541) James (1566–1567) Henry Frederick (1594–1612) Charles (1612–1625) Charles James (1629) Charles (1630–1649) James (1688–1689) George (1714–1727) Frederick (1727–1751) George (1762–1820) Albert Edward (1841–1901) George (1901–1910) Edward (1910–1936) Charles (1952–2022) William (2022–present) vte Princes of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha Forefather Duke Francis I* 1st generation Duke Ernest I* Prince Ferdinand* King Leopold I of the Belgians* 2nd generation Ducal Duke Ernest II* Albert, Prince Consort of the United Kingdom* Koháry King Ferdinand II of Portugal and the Algarves* Prince August* Prince Leopold* Belgium Crown Prince Louis Philippe King Leopold II Prince Philippe 3rd generation United Kingdom King Edward VII Duke Alfred I Prince Arthur Prince Leopold Portugal King Pedro V King Luís I Infante João Infante Fernando Infante Augusto Koháry Prince Philipp Prince Ludwig August Tsar Ferdinand I of the Bulgarians Belgium Prince Leopold Prince Baudouin King Albert I 4th generation United Kingdom Prince Albert Victor King George V Hereditary Prince Alfred Prince Arthur Duke Charles Edward I Portugal King Carlos I Infante Afonso Koháry Prince Leopold Clement Prince Pedro Augusto Prince August Leopold Prince Joseph Ferdinand Prince Ludwig Gaston Bulgaria Tsar Boris III Prince Kiril Belgium King Leopold III Prince Charles 5th generation United Kingdom King Edward VIII King George VI Prince Henry Prince George Prince John Prince Alastair Ducal Hereditary Prince Johann Leopold Prince Hubertus Prince Friedrich Josias Portugal Prince Luís Filipe King Manuel II Koháry Prince Rainer Prince Philipp Bulgaria Tsar Simeon II Belgium King Baudouin I King Albert II Prince Alexandre 6th generation Ducal Prince Andreas Koháry Prince Johannes Heinrich Bulgaria Prince Kardam Prince Kyril Belgium King Philippe I Prince Laurent 7th generation Bulgaria Prince Boris Belgium Prince Gabriel Prince Emmanuel *Titled as Princes of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld before 11 February 1826 vte Grand Masters of the Order of St Michael and St George Sir Thomas Maitland The Prince Adolphus, Duke of Cambridge Prince George, Duke of Cambridge The Prince George, Prince of Wales Vacant The Prince Edward, Prince of Wales Alexander Cambridge, 1st Earl of Athlone Edward Wood, 1st Earl of Halifax Harold Alexander, 1st Earl Alexander of Tunis Prince Edward, Duke of Kent StMichaelandStGeorgeInsignia.jpg vte Heads of State of South Africa Monarch (1910–1961) George V Edward VIII George VI Elizabeth II Red Ensign of South Africa (1912–1951).svg Flag of South Africa (1928–1994).svg Flag of South Africa.svg State President (1961–1994) (under Apartheid) Charles Robberts Swart Eben Dönges† Tom Naudé* Jim Fouché Jan de Klerk* Nico Diederichs† Marais Viljoen* John Vorster Marais Viljoen P. W. Botha F. W. de Klerk President (from 1994) (post-Apartheid) Nelson Mandela Thabo Mbeki Ivy Matsepe-Casaburri* Kgalema Motlanthe Jacob Zuma Cyril Ramaphosa †Died in office *Acting President Authority control Edit this at Wikidata Categories: Edward VIII1894 births1972 deaths19th-century British people20th-century Bahamian people20th-century British monarchsAbdication of Edward VIIIAlumni of Magdalen College, OxfordBritish Army personnel of World War IBritish emigrants to FranceBritish field marshalsBritish governors of the BahamasBurials at the Royal Burial Ground, FrogmoreChildren of George VDeaths from cancer in FranceDeaths from throat cancerDukes created by George VIDukes of CornwallDukes of RothesayEmperors of IndiaEnglish memoiristsFreemasons of the United Grand Lodge of EnglandGrand Crosses of the Order of Christ (Portugal)Grand Crosses of the Order of AvizGrand Crosses of the Order of the Sun of PeruGrenadier Guards officersHeads of state of CanadaHeads of state of New ZealandHeirs to the British throneHigh Stewards of ScotlandHonorary Fellows of the Royal Society of EdinburghHouse of WindsorKings of the Irish Free StateKnights Grand Commander of the Order of the Indian EmpireKnights Grand Commander of the Order of the Star of IndiaBailiffs Grand Cross of the Order of St JohnKnights of St PatrickKnights of the GarterKnights of the Golden Fleece of SpainMarshals of the Royal Air ForceMembers of the Queen's Privy Council for CanadaMonarchs of AustraliaMonarchs of South AfricaMonarchs of the Isle of ManMonarchs of the United KingdomMonarchs who abdicatedPeople educated at the Royal Naval College, OsbornePeople from Richmond, LondonPeople of the Victorian eraPrinces of the United KingdomPrinces of WalesRecipients of the Military CrossRoyal Navy admirals of the fleetBritish princesMilitary personnel from SurreySons of emperorsSons of kings Elizabeth II Head of the Commonwealth Formal photograph of Elizabeth facing right Formal photograph, 1958 Queen of the United Kingdom and other Commonwealth realms (more...) Reign 6 February 1952 – 8 September 2022[a] Coronation 2 June 1953 Predecessor George VI Successor Charles III Prime ministers See list Born Princess Elizabeth of York 21 April 1926 Mayfair, London, England Died 8 September 2022 (aged 96) Balmoral Castle, Aberdeenshire, Scotland Burial 19 September 2022 King George VI Memorial Chapel, St George's Chapel, Windsor Castle Spouse Prince Philip, Duke of Edinburgh (m. 1947; died 2021) Issue Detail Charles III Anne, Princess Royal Prince Andrew, Duke of York Prince Edward, Earl of Wessex and Forfar Names Elizabeth Alexandra Mary House Windsor Father George VI Mother Elizabeth Bowes-Lyon Signature Elizabeth's signature in black ink Elizabeth II (Elizabeth Alexandra Mary; 21 April 1926 – 8 September 2022) was Queen of the United Kingdom and other Commonwealth realms from 6 February 1952 until her death in 2022. She was queen regnant of 32 sovereign states during her lifetime and 15 at the time of her death.[a] Her reign of 70 years and 214 days was the longest of any British monarch and the longest verified reign of any female sovereign in history. Elizabeth was born in Mayfair, London, as the first child of the Duke and duch*ess of York (later King George VI and Queen Elizabeth The Queen Mother). Her father acceded to the throne in 1936 upon the abdication of his brother King Edward VIII, making Princess Elizabeth the heir presumptive. She was educated privately at home and began to undertake public duties during the Second World War, serving in the Auxiliary Territorial Service. In November 1947, she married Philip Mountbatten, a former prince of Greece and Denmark, and their marriage lasted 73 years until his death in 2021. They had four children: Charles, Anne, Andrew, and Edward. When her father died in February 1952, Elizabeth—then 25 years old—became queen of seven independent Commonwealth countries: the United Kingdom, Canada, Australia, New Zealand, South Africa, Pakistan, and Ceylon (known today as Sri Lanka), as well as Head of the Commonwealth. Elizabeth reigned as a constitutional monarch through major political changes such as the Troubles in Northern Ireland, devolution in the United Kingdom, the decolonisation of Africa, and the United Kingdom's accession to the European Communities and withdrawal from the European Union. The number of her realms varied over time as territories gained independence and some realms became republics. As queen, Elizabeth was served by more than 170 prime ministers across her realms. Her many historic visits and meetings included state visits to China in 1986, to Russia in 1994, and to the Republic of Ireland in 2011, and meetings with five popes. Significant events included Elizabeth's coronation in 1953 and the celebrations of her Silver, Golden, Diamond, and Platinum jubilees in 1977, 2002, 2012, and 2022, respectively. Although she faced occasional republican sentiment and media criticism of her family—particularly after the breakdowns of her children's marriages, her annus horribilis in 1992, and the death in 1997 of her former daughter-in-law Diana, Princess of Wales—support for the monarchy in the United Kingdom remained consistently high throughout her lifetime, as did her personal popularity.[1] Elizabeth died on 8 September 2022 at Balmoral Castle in Aberdeenshire, at the age of 96, and was succeeded by her eldest child, King Charles III. Her state funeral was the first to be held in the United Kingdom since that of Winston Churchill in 1965. Elizabeth gave birth to her third child, Prince Andrew, on 19 February 1960, which was the first birth to a reigning British monarch since 1857.[95] Her fourth child, Prince Edward, was born on 10 March 1964.[96] In addition to performing traditional ceremonies, Elizabeth also instituted new practices. Her first royal walkabout, meeting ordinary members of the public, took place during a tour of Australia and New Zealand in 1970.[97] Acceleration of decolonisation In Queensland, Australia, 1970 With President Tito of Yugoslavia in Belgrade, 1972 The 1960s and 1970s saw an acceleration in the decolonisation of Africa and the Caribbean. More than 20 countries gained independence from Britain as part of a planned transition to self-government. In 1965, however, the Rhodesian prime minister, Ian Smith, in opposition to moves towards majority rule, unilaterally declared independence while expressing "loyalty and devotion" to Elizabeth, declaring her "Queen of Rhodesia".[98] Although Elizabeth formally dismissed him, and the international community applied sanctions against Rhodesia, his regime survived for over a decade.[99] As Britain's ties to its former empire weakened, the British government sought entry to the European Community, a goal it achieved in 1973.[100] Elizabeth toured Yugoslavia in October 1972, becoming the first British monarch to visit a communist country.[101] She was received at the airport by President Josip Broz Tito, and a crowd of thousands greeted her in Belgrade.[102] In February 1974, the British prime minister, Edward Heath, advised Elizabeth to call a general election in the middle of her tour of the Austronesian Pacific Rim, requiring her to fly back to Britain.[103] The election resulted in a hung parliament; Heath's Conservatives were not the largest party, but could stay in office if they formed a coalition with the Liberals. When discussions on forming a coalition foundered, Heath resigned as prime minister and Elizabeth asked the Leader of the Opposition, Labour's Harold Wilson, to form a government.[104] A year later, at the height of the 1975 Australian constitutional crisis, the Australian prime minister, Gough Whitlam, was dismissed from his post by Governor-General Sir John Kerr, after the Opposition-controlled Senate rejected Whitlam's budget proposals.[105] As Whitlam had a majority in the House of Representatives, Speaker Gordon Scholes appealed to Elizabeth to reverse Kerr's decision. She declined, saying she would not interfere in decisions reserved by the Constitution of Australia for the Governor-General.[106] The crisis fuelled Australian republicanism. 1896 in the United Kingdom Article Talk Read Edit View history Tools Appearance hide Text Small Standard Large Width Standard Wide From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia 1896 in the United Kingdom Other years 1894 | 1895 | 1896 | 1897 | 1898 Constituent countries of the United Kingdom England | Ireland | Scotland | Wales Sport 1896 English cricket season Football: England | Scotland Events from the year 1896 in the United Kingdom. Incumbents Monarch – Victoria Prime Minister – Robert Gascoyne-Cecil, 3rd Marquess of Salisbury (Coalition) Events January – Fourth Anglo-Ashanti War: British redcoats enter the Ashanti capital, Kumasi, and Asantehene Agyeman Prempeh I is deposed.[1] 2 January – the Jameson Raid comes to an end, as Jameson surrenders to the Boers.[2] 6 January – Cecil Rhodes resigns as Premier of Cape Colony over the Jameson Raid.[2] 10 January – American-born Birt Acres demonstrates his film projector, the Kineopticon, the first in Britain, to the Lyonsdown Photographic Club in New Barnet, the first film show to an audience in the U.K.[3] 14 January – Acres demonstrates his Kineopticon to the Royal Photographic Society at the Queen's Hall in London.[4] 28 January In an underground explosion at Tylorstown Colliery, Rhondda, 57 miners are killed.[5] Engineer Walter Arnold of the Arnold (automobile) company of East Peckham in Kent receives the U.K.'s first speeding conviction for travelling at 8 mph (13 km/h) in a motorised vehicle, thereby exceeding the contemporary speed limit for towns of 2 mph (3.2 km/h).[6] 20 February – in London:[7] Robert W. Paul demonstrates his film projector, the Theatrograph (later known as the Animatograph), at the Alhambra Theatre. The Lumiere Brothers first project their films in Britain, at the Empire Theatre of Varieties, Leicester Square. 12 March – Salisbury orders a military campaign to combat increasing French influence in the Sudan.[2] 6 April – the Snowdon Mountain Railway commences public operation; however, a derailment leading to one fatality causes services to be suspended for a year.[8] 6–15 April – Great Britain and Ireland compete at the Olympics and win 2 gold, 3 silver and 2 bronze medals. 16 April – the National Trust acquires (for £10) its first building for preservation, and its first property in England, Alfriston Clergy House in East Sussex. 21 April – Royal Victorian Order instituted. 23 April – Blackpool Pleasure Beach amusem*nt park established.[9][10] 30 April – Peckfield Colliery disaster in Micklefield, Yorkshire: an underground explosion kills 63 men and boys and 19 pit ponies.[11] 4 May – Daily Mail newspaper founded.[12] 8 May – in cricket, Yorkshire sets a still-standing County Championship record when they accumulate an innings total of 887 against Warwickshire. 18–20 May – Newlyn riots: protests by fishermen at Newlyn, Cornwall, against those from Lowestoft and elsewhere fishing on Sabbath, leading to military intervention. 7 June – Mahdist War: British and Egyptian victory at the Battle of Ferkeh. 12 June – Jack (J.T.) Hearne sets a record for the earliest date of taking 100 wickets. It is equalled by Charlie Parker in 1931. 26 July–1 August – International Socialist Workers and Trade Union Congress held in London. 17 August Bridget Driscoll becomes the first person in the world to be killed in a car accident, in the grounds of The Crystal Palace.[12] Start of development of Trafford Park, Manchester, pioneering example of a planned industrial estate in England.[13] 27 August The shortest war in recorded history, the Anglo-Zanzibar War, starts at 9 in the morning and lasts for 45 minutes of shelling.[12] Britain establishes a Protectorate over Ashanti concluding the Fourth Anglo-Ashanti War. 15 September – Pope Leo XIII issues the papal bull Apostolicae curae, declaring all Anglican ordinations to be "absolutely null and utterly void". 22 September – Queen Victoria surpasses her grandfather King George III as the longest reigning monarch in British history up to this date. 23 September – Kitchener captures Dongola in the Sudan.[2] 30 September–August 1897: Lock-out of Welsh slate workers at Penrhyn Quarry.[14] London to Brighton Veteran Car Run recreating the 1896 'Emancipation Run' 14 November – the Locomotives on Highways Act (of 14 August)[15] comes into effect, raising the speed limit for road vehicles from 4 to 14 mph[12] and removing the requirement for a man to walk in front of an automobile to give warning. To celebrate this, an 'Emancipation Run' of cars from London to Brighton (continuing afterwards as the London to Brighton Veteran Car Run) is held.[16] By this date, Thomas Humber's car factory in Coventry has become the first in Britain to begin series production.[17] 4–5 December – a storm hits Brighton, destroying the old Chain Pier (closed October) and badly damaging the other piers and the new Brighton and Rottingdean Seashore Electric Railway (opened 28 November). 11 December – William Preece introduces Guglielmo Marconi's work in wireless telegraphy to the general public at a lecture, "Telegraphy without Wires", at the Toynbee Hall in London. 14 December – Glasgow Subway, the third oldest metro system in the world (after the London Underground and the Budapest Metro), begins operations in Glasgow. 17 December – Hereford earthquake. Undated Completion of the first flats in the London County Council's Boundary Estate in the East End of London, the country's earliest public housing scheme, replacing part of the notorious Old Nichol slum.[18] The Arts and Crafts movement house Munstead Wood in Surrey is designed by architect Edwin Lutyens for garden designer Gertrude Jekyll, his first major commission and the start of an influential partnership. Publications Hilaire Belloc's verse collection The Bad Child's Book of Beasts. Joseph Conrad's novel An Outcast of the Islands. Marie Corelli's novels The Mighty Atom, The Murder of Delicia and Ziska. A. E. Housman's poetry collection A Shropshire Lad. W. W. Jacobs' short story collection Many Cargoes. William Morris's fantasy novel The Well at the World's End. Arthur Morrison's social realist novella A Child of the Jago. Robert Louis Stevenson's unfinished historical novel Weir of Hermiston (posthumous). H. G. Wells' science fiction novel The Island of Doctor Moreau. Births 7 January – Arnold Ridley, actor and playwright (died 1984) 25 January - John Moores, businessman and owner of the Littlewoods empire (died 1993) 14 February – Edward Arthur Milne, astrophysicist and mathematician (died 1950) 3 May – Dodie Smith, novelist and playwright (died 1990) 7 May – John Dunville, army officer (died of wounds 1917) 29 May – Doreen Knatchbull, Baroness Brabourne, aristocrat and socialite (died 1979) 6 June – Henry Allingham, became the oldest surviving British veteran of the First World War and briefly the world's oldest man (died 2009) 19 June R. Palme Dutt, communist theoretician (died 1974) Wallis Warfield, later duch*ess of Windsor, American wife of the Duke of Windsor (died in France 1986) 25 June – Alfred Anderson, Scottish joiner and veteran of the First World War (died 2005) 28 July – Guy Salisbury-Jones, Army major-general (died 1985) 28 July – Joyce Bishop, educator (died 1993)[19] 19 July – A. J. Cronin, Scottish novelist (died 1981) 14 August – Albert Ball, flying ace (killed in action 1917) 14 October – Bud Flanagan, comedian and singer (died 1968) 16 November – Oswald Mosley, leader of the British Union of Fascists (died 1980) 17 November – Sophie Catherine Theresa Mary Peirce-Evans, later Mary, Lady Heath, aviator and athlete (died 1939) 15 December – Miles Dempsey, general (died 1969) Deaths 8 January – Colin Blackburn, Baron Blackburn, judge (born 1813) 17 January – Augusta Hall, Baroness Llanover, Welsh patron of the arts (born 1802)[20] 19 January – Bernhard Gillam, political cartoonist (born 1856) 25 January – Frederic Leighton, 1st Baron Leighton, painter and sculptor specialising in classical subjects (born 1830) 14 February – George Selwyn Marryat, fly fisherman (born 1840) 10 June – Amelia Dyer, baby farm murderer (born 1837; hanged) 23 June – Sir Joseph Prestwich, geologist (born 1812) 7 July – Charles Thomas Wooldridge, soldier and uxoricide commemorated in Oscar Wilde's The Ballad of Reading Gaol (born 1866; hanged) 23 July – Caroline Martyn, Christian socialist and trade unionist (born 1867) 12 August – Sir Harry Lumsden, general (born 1821) 13 August – Sir John Everett Millais, painter (born 1829) 18 August – Frederick Nicholls Crouch, composer and cellist (born 1808) 2 May – Emma Darwin, née Wedgwood, wife of Charles Darwin (died 1896) 3 October – William Morris, artist, writer and socialist (born 1834) 6 October – Sir James Abbott, army officer and colonial administrator in British India (born 1807) 8 October – George du Maurier, cartoonist and novelist (born 1834 in France) 11 October – Edward White Benson, Archbishop of Canterbury (born 1829) 21 October – James Henry Greathead, engineer and inventor (born 1844 in South Africa) November – Margaret Eleanor Parker, social activist, first president of the British Women's Temperance Association (born 1827) 26 November – Coventry Patmore, poet (born 1823) 10 December – Sir Alexander Milne, 1st Baronet, admiral of the fleet (born 1806) See also List of British films before 1920 References Slee, Christopher (1994). The Guinness Book of Lasts. Enfield: Guinness Publishing. ISBN 0-85112-783-5. Palmer, Alan; Palmer, Veronica (1992). The Chronology of British History. London: Century Ltd. pp. 324–325. ISBN 0-7126-5616-2. Robertson, Patrick (2001). Film Facts. Quantum Books. ISBN 978-1-84573-235-6. "Birt Acres". EarlyCinema.com. Archived from the original on 12 July 2011. Retrieved 15 August 2011. "Welsh Coal Mines". Retrieved 27 November 2010. "Motoring firsts". National Motoring Museum. Archived from the original on 14 January 2016. Retrieved 20 March 2024 – via Wayback Machine. Mast, Gerald; Kawin, Bruce F., eds. (2007). "Birth". A Short History of the Movies (abridged 9th ed.). Pearson Education. ISBN 9780321418210. Kardas, Handel (April 1997). "Britain's worst railway opening day – Ladas and the Snowdon Mountain Railway". Railway World. 58 (683): 66–71. "The History of Pleasure Beach, Blackpool". Pleasure Beach Theme Park. Archived from the original on 17 September 2010. Retrieved 19 October 2010. "How Blackpool Pleasure Beach Began". Live Blackpool. 15 November 2020. Retrieved 21 May 2021. "Micklefield Colliery Explosion - Leeds - 1896". Northern Mine Research Society. Retrieved 21 May 2021. Penguin Pocket On This Day. Penguin Reference Library. 2006. ISBN 0-14-102715-0. Nicholls, Robert (1996). Trafford Park: the First Hundred Years. Chichester: Phillimore & Co Ltd. ISBN 1-86077-013-4. Lindsay, Jean (1974). A History of the North Wales Slate Industry. Newton Abbot: David & Charles. ISBN 0-7153-6264-X. "Parliament". The Mail. London. 17 August 1896. p. 5. "London to Brighton Veteran Car Run". Archived from the original on 8 March 2008. Retrieved 30 March 2008. Stratton, Michael; Trinder, Barrie (2000). Twentieth Century Industrial Archaeology. London: E. & F.N. Spon. p. 75. ISBN 0-419-24680-0. Taylor, Rosemary (2001). Exploring the East End. Walks Through History. London: Breedon Books. ISBN 1859832709. Bowden (23 September 2004). "Bishop, Dame (Margaret) Joyce (1896–1993), headmistress". Oxford Dictionary of National Biography (online ed.). Oxford University Press. doi:10.1093/ref:odnb/51446. (Subscription or UK public library membership required.) Laurence, Anya (1978). Women of Notes: 1,000 Women Composers Born Before 1900. New York: Richards Rosen Press. p. 91. OCLC 252454075. vte 1707–1800 ← Years in the United Kingdom (1801–present) Years in the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland Years in the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland vte 1896 in Europe Sovereign states AndorraAustria-HungaryBadenBelgiumBulgariaDenmarkFranceGermanyGreeceItalyLiechtensteinLuxembourgMonacoMontenegroNetherlandsNorwayOttoman EmpirePortugalPrussiaRomaniaRussiaSan MarinoSpainSwedenSwitzerlandUnited Kingdom Dependencies, colonies and other territories CyprusGibraltarGuernseyIsle of ManJerseyMalta Categories: 1896 in the United KingdomYears of the 19th century in the United Kingdom1896 by country1890s in the United Kingdom1896 in Europe Olympic Games Article Talk Read View source View history Tools Appearance hide Text Small Standard Large Width Standard Wide Page semi-protected From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia This article is about the modern games in general. For the most recent games in Beijing, China, see 2022 Winter Olympics. For the upcoming games in Paris, France, see 2024 Summer Olympics. For the ancient Greek games, see Ancient Olympic Games. For other uses, see Olympic (disambiguation). Olympic Games Olympic Rings Main topics BidsBoycottsCeremoniesCharterHost citiesIFsIOCMedalMedal tablesMedalistsNOCsOlympismPierre de Coubertin medalScandals and controversiesSportsSymbolsTelevisionTorch relaysVenuesWomen participation Games SummerWinter YouthEsports AfricanAsianEuropeanPacificPan-American AncientIntercalated vte The modern Olympic Games or Olympics (French: Jeux olympiques)[a][1] are the leading international sporting events featuring summer and winter sports competitions in which thousands of athletes from around the world participate in a variety of competitions. The Olympic Games are considered the world's foremost sports competition with more than 200 teams, representing sovereign states and territories, participating. By default, the Games generally substitute for any world championships during the year in which they take place (however, each class usually maintains its own records).[2] The Olympic Games are held every four years. Since 1994, they have alternated between the Summer and Winter Olympics every two years during the four-year Olympiad.[3][4] Their creation was inspired by the ancient Olympic Games, held in Olympia, Greece from the 8th century BC to the 4th century AD. Baron Pierre de Coubertin founded the International Olympic Committee (IOC) in 1894, leading to the first modern Games in Athens in 1896. The IOC is the governing body of the Olympic Movement, which encompasses all entities and individuals involved in the Olympic Games. The Olympic Charter defines their structure and authority. The evolution of the Olympic Movement during the 20th and 21st centuries has resulted in numerous changes to the Olympic Games. Some of these adjustments include the creation of the Winter Olympic Games for snow and ice sports, the Paralympic Games for athletes with disabilities, the Youth Olympic Games for athletes aged 14 to 18, the five Continental Games (Pan American, African, Asian, European, and Pacific), and the World Games for sports that are not contested in the Olympic Games. The IOC also endorses the Deaflympics and the Special Olympics. The IOC has needed to adapt to a variety of economic, political, and technological advancements. The abuse of amateur rules by the Eastern Bloc nations prompted the IOC to shift away from pure amateurism, as envisioned by Coubertin, to the acceptance of professional athletes participating at the Games. The growing importance of mass media has created the issue of corporate sponsorship and general commercialisation of the Games. World Wars I and II led to the cancellation of the 1916, 1940, and 1944 Olympics; large-scale boycotts during the Cold War limited participation in the 1980 and 1984 Olympics;[5] and the 2020 Olympics were postponed until 2021 as a result of the COVID-19 pandemic. The Olympic Movement consists of international sports federations (IFs), National Olympic Committees (NOCs), and organising committees for each specific Olympic Games. As the decision-making body, the IOC is responsible for choosing the host city for each Games, and organises and funds the Games according to the Olympic Charter. The IOC also determines the Olympic programme, consisting of the sports to be contested at the Games. There are several Olympic rituals and symbols, such as the Olympic flag, torch, and opening and closing ceremonies. Over 14,000 athletes competed at the 2020 Summer Olympics and 2022 Winter Olympics combined, in 40 different sports and 448 events.[6][7] The first-, second-, and third-place finishers in each event receive Olympic medals: gold, silver, and bronze, respectively. The Games have grown to the point that nearly every nation is now represented; colonies and overseas territories are often allowed to field their own teams. This growth has created numerous challenges and controversies, including boycotts, doping, bribery, and terrorism. Every two years, the Olympics and its media exposure provide athletes with the chance to attain national and international fame. The Games also provide an opportunity for the host city and country to showcase themselves to the world. Ancient Olympics Main article: Ancient Olympic Games The Ancient Olympic Games stadium in Olympia, Greece The Ancient Olympic Games (Ancient Greek: τὰ Ὀλύμπια, ta Olympia[8]) were religious and athletic festivals held every four years at the sanctuary of Zeus in Olympia, Greece. The date of the festival was determined according to a complicated formula whereby the midpoint of the festival would occur during the second full moon after the summer solstice—usually late August or early September.[9] Harolds were sent from Elis to announce the dates.[10] Competition at first was among only "legitimate sons of free-born Greek parents."[11] However, after Macedonia, and then Rome, conquered Greece, the ten Olympic judges diluted the earlier standard and permitted anyone who spoke Greek to participate.[12] Tens of thousands of Greeks would make the difficult journey to attend the festival.[13] These Games featured mainly athletic but also combat sports such as wrestling and the pankration, horse and chariot racing events. It has been widely written that during the Games, all conflicts among the participating city-states were postponed until the Games were finished. This cessation of hostilities was known as the Olympic peace or truce.[14] This idea is a modern myth because the Greeks never suspended their wars. The truce did allow those religious pilgrims who were traveling to Olympia to pass through warring territories unmolested because they were protected by Zeus.[15] The origin of the Olympics is shrouded in mystery and legend;[16] one of the most popular myths identifies Heracles and his father Zeus as the progenitors of the Games.[17][18][19] According to legend, it was Heracles who first called the Games "Olympic" and established the custom of holding them every four years.[20] The myth continues that after Heracles completed his twelve labours, he built the Olympic Stadium as an honour to Zeus. Following its completion, he walked in a straight line for 200 steps and called this distance a "stadion" (Ancient Greek: στάδιον, Latin: stadium, "stage"), which later became a unit of distance. The most widely accepted inception date for the Ancient Olympics is 776 BC; this is based on inscriptions, found at Olympia, listing the winners of a footrace held every four years starting in 776 BC.[21] For the first thirteen Olympics, the stadion footrace was the only event contested,[22] and victory in that sprint was so valued that the next Olympiad was named after the winner, e.g. "the third year of the eighteenth Olympiad when Ladas of Argos won the stadion."[23] The Ancient Games varied over time, but they came to feature running events, a pentathlon (consisting of a jumping event, discus and javelin throws, a foot race, and wrestling), boxing, wrestling, pankration, and equestrian events.[24][25] Tradition has it that Coroebus, a cook from the city of Elis, was the first Olympic champion,[26] which indicates that the competition was not limited to the aristocracy.[27] The Olympics were of fundamental religious importance, and the sporting events, which were held alongside ritual sacrifices honouring both Zeus (whose famous statue by Phidias stood in his temple at Olympia) and Pelops (divine hero and mythical king of Olympia), did not start until the festival's second day. [28](Pelops was famous for his chariot race with King Oenomaus of Pisatis.[29]) The winners of the events were admired and immortalised in poems and statues.[30] Although a wreath made from the sacred olive tree in the precinct of Zeus was the only official prize at the Olympic games, winners' fame brought them economic wealth, too, in the form of subsidies from their home towns and wealthy sponsors. [31] The Games were held every four years, and this period, known as an Olympiad, was used by Greeks as one of their units of time measurement. The Games were part of a cycle known as the Panhellenic Games, which included the Pythian Games, the Nemean Games, and the Isthmian Games.[32] The Olympic Games reached the height of their success in the 6th and 5th centuries BC, but then gradually declined in importance as the Romans gained power and influence in Greece. While there is no scholarly consensus as to when the Games officially ended, the most commonly held date is 393 AD, when the emperor Theodosius I decreed that all pagan cults and practices be eliminated.[b] Another date commonly cited is 426 AD, when his successor, Theodosius II, ordered the destruction of all Greek temples.[33] Modern Games See also: List of Olympic Games host cities Forerunners Pierre de Coubertin, co-founder of the International Olympic Committee and its second president Various uses of the term "Olympic" to describe athletic events in the modern era have been documented since the 17th century. The first such event was the Cotswold Games or "Cotswold Olimpick Games", an annual meeting near Chipping Campden, England, involving various sports. It was first organised by the lawyer Robert Dover between 1612 and 1642, with several later celebrations leading up to the present day. The British Olympic Association, in its bid for the 2012 Olympic Games in London, mentioned these games as "the first stirrings of Britain's Olympic beginnings".[34] L'Olympiade de la République, a national Olympic festival held annually from 1796 to 1798 in Revolutionary France also attempted to emulate the ancient Olympic Games.[35] The competition included several disciplines from the ancient Greek Olympics. The 1796 Games also marked the introduction of the metric system into sport.[35] The 1834 handbill, written in phonetic vernacular, advertising "Ho-limpyc Gaymes" in Oswestry, Shropshire, England In 1834 and 1836, Olympic games were held in Ramlösa, Sweden, and in Stockholm, in 1843, organised by Gustaf Johan Schartau and others. At most 25,000 spectators saw the games.[36] In 1850, an Olympian Class was started by William Penny Brookes at Much Wenlock, in Shropshire, England. In 1859, Brookes changed the name to the Wenlock Olympian Games. This annual sports festival continues to this day.[37] The Wenlock Olympian Society was founded by Brookes on 15 November 1860.[38] Between 1862 and 1867, Liverpool held an annual Grand Olympic Festival. Devised by John Hulley and Charles Pierre Melly, these games were the first to be wholly amateur in nature and international in outlook, although only 'gentlemen amateurs' could compete.[39][40] The programme of the first modern Olympiad in Athens in 1896 was almost identical to that of the Liverpool Olympics.[41] In 1865 Hulley, Brookes and E.G. Ravenstein founded the National Olympian Association in Liverpool, a forerunner of the British Olympic Association. Its articles of foundation provided the framework for the International Olympic Charter.[42] In 1866, a national Olympic Games in Great Britain was organised at London's Crystal Palace.[43] Revival Evangelos Zappas, co-founder of the International Olympic Committee Greek interest in reviving the Olympic Games began with the Greek War of Independence from the Ottoman Empire in 1821. It was first proposed by poet and newspaper editor Panagiotis Soutsos in his poem "Dialogue of the Dead", published in 1833.[44] Evangelos Zappas, a wealthy Greek-Romanian philanthropist, first wrote to King Otto of Greece, in 1856, offering to fund a permanent revival of the Olympic Games.[45] Zappas sponsored the first Olympic Games in 1859, which was held in an Athens city square. Athletes participated from Greece and the Ottoman Empire. Zappas funded the restoration of the ancient Panathenaic Stadium so that it could host all future Olympic Games.[45] The stadium hosted Olympics in 1870 and 1875.[46] Thirty thousand spectators attended that Games in 1870, though no official attendance records are available for the 1875 Games.[47] In 1890, after attending the Olympian Games of the Wenlock Olympian Society, Baron Pierre de Coubertin was inspired to found the International Olympic Committee (IOC).[48] Coubertin built on the ideas and work of Brookes and Zappas with the aim of establishing internationally rotating Olympic Games that would occur every four years.[48] He presented these ideas during the first Olympic Congress of the newly created International Olympic Committee. This meeting was held from 16 to 23 June 1894, at the University of Paris. On the last day of the Congress, it was decided that the first Olympic Games to come under the auspices of the IOC would take place in Athens in 1896.[49] The IOC elected the Greek writer Demetrius Vikelas as its first president.[50] 1896 Games Main article: 1896 Summer Olympics The opening ceremony of the 1896 Summer Olympics in Panathinaiko Stadium in Athens The first Games held under the auspices of the IOC was hosted in the Panathenaic Stadium in Athens in 1896. The Games brought together 14 nations and 241 athletes who competed in 43 events.[51] Zappas and his cousin Konstantinos Zappas had left the Greek government a trust to fund future Olympic Games. This trust was used to help finance the 1896 Games.[52][53][54] George Averoff contributed generously for the refurbishment of the stadium in preparation for the Games.[55] The Greek government also provided funding, which was expected to be recouped through the sale of tickets and from the sale of the first Olympic commemorative stamp set.[55] Greek officials and the public were enthusiastic about the experience of hosting an Olympic Games.[56] This feeling was shared by many of the athletes, who even demanded that Athens be the permanent Olympic host city. The IOC intended for subsequent Games to be rotated to various host cities around the world. The second Olympics was held in Paris.[57] Changes and adaptations Main article: Summer Olympic Games Francis Field at Washington University in St. Louis during the 1904 Summer Olympics After the success of the 1896 Games, the Olympics entered a period of stagnation which threatened its survival. The Olympic Games held at the Paris Exposition in 1900 and the Louisiana Purchase Exposition at St. Louis in 1904 failed to attract much participation or notice. Of the 650 athletes in the 1904 Olympics, 580 were American; the winner of the marathon was later disqualified upon discovery of a photograph of him riding in a car during the race.[58] The Games rebounded with the 1906 Intercalated Games (so-called because they were the second Olympics to take place within the third Olympiad), which were held in Athens. These Games attracted a broad international field of participants and generated a great deal of public interest, marking the beginning of a rise in both the popularity and the size of the Olympics. The 1906 Games were officially recognised by the IOC at the time (although not any longer), and no Intercalated Games have been held since.[59] Winter Games Main article: Winter Olympic Games An ice hockey game during the 1928 Winter Olympics at St. Moritz The Winter Olympics was created to feature snow and ice sports that were logistically impossible to hold during the Summer Games. Figure skating (in 1908 and 1920) and ice hockey (in 1920) were featured as Olympic events at the Summer Olympics. The IOC desired to expand this list of sports to encompass other winter activities. At the 1921 Olympic Congress in Lausanne, it was decided to hold a winter version of the Olympic Games. A winter sports week (it was actually 11 days) was held in 1924 in Chamonix, France, in connection with the Paris Games held three months later; this event became the first Winter Olympic Games.[60] Although it was intended that the same country host both the Winter and Summer Games in a given year, this idea was quickly abandoned. The IOC mandated that the Winter Games be celebrated every four years in the same year as their summer counterpart.[61] This tradition was upheld through the 1992 Games in Albertville, France; after that, beginning with the 1994 Games, the Winter Olympics were held every four years, two years after each Summer Olympics.[62] Paralympics Main article: Paralympic Games 1964 Summer Paralympics in Tokyo In 1948, Sir Ludwig Guttmann, determined to promote the rehabilitation of soldiers after World War II, organised a multi-sport event between several hospitals to coincide with the 1948 London Olympics. Originally known as the Stoke Mandeville Games, Guttmann's event became an annual sports festival. Over the next 12 years, Guttmann and others continued their efforts to use sports as an avenue to healing. In 1960, Guttmann brought 400 athletes to Rome to compete in the "Parallel Olympics", which ran in parallel with the Summer Olympics and came to be known as the first Paralympics. Since then, the Paralympics have been held in every Olympic year and, starting with the 1988 Summer Games in Seoul, the host city for the Olympics has also played host to the Paralympics.[63][c] The International Olympic Committee (IOC) and the International Paralympic Committee (IPC) signed an agreement in 2001 which guaranteed that host cities would be contracted to manage both the Olympic and Paralympic Games.[65][66] The agreement came into effect at the 2008 Summer Games in Beijing, and at the 2010 Winter Games in Vancouver. Two years before the 2012 Games, the LOCOG chairman Lord Coe made the following statement about the Paralympics and Olympics in London:[67] We want to change public attitudes towards disability, celebrate the excellence of Paralympic sport and to enshrine from the very outset that the two Games are an integrated whole. Youth Games Main article: Youth Olympic Games In 2010, the Olympic Games were complemented by the Youth Games, which give athletes between the ages of 14 and 18 the chance to compete. The Youth Olympic Games were conceived by IOC president Jacques Rogge in 2001 and approved during the 119th Congress of the IOC.[68][69] The first Summer Youth Games were held in Singapore from 14 to 26 August 2010, while the inaugural Winter Games were hosted in Innsbruck, Austria, two years later.[70] These Games will be shorter than the senior Games; the summer version will last twelve days, while the winter version will last nine days.[71] The IOC allows 3,500 athletes and 875 officials to participate at the Summer Youth Games, and 970 athletes and 580 officials at the Winter Youth Games.[72][73] The sports to be contested will coincide with those scheduled for the senior Games, however there will be variations on the sports including mixed NOC and mixed gender teams as well as a reduced number of disciplines and events.[74] 21st-century Games The Summer Olympics have grown from 241 participants representing 14 nations in 1896, to more than 11,300 competitors representing 206 nations in 2020.[75] The scope and scale of the Winter Olympics is smaller; for example, Beijing hosted 2,971 athletes from 91 nations in 2022. Most of the athletes and officials are housed in the Olympic Village for the duration of the Games. This accommodation centre is designed to be a self-contained home for all Olympic participants, and is furnished with cafeterias, health clinics, and locations for religious expression.[76] The IOC has allowed the formation of National Olympic Committees (NOCs) to represent individual nations. These do not meet the strict requirements for political sovereignty that other international organisations demand. As a result, colonies and dependencies are permitted to compete at Olympic Games, examples being territories such as Puerto Rico, Bermuda, and Hong Kong, all of which compete as separate nations despite being legally a part of another country.[77] The current version of the Olympic Charter allows for the establishment of new NOCs to represent nations that qualify as "an independent State recognised by the international community".[78] Consequently, the IOC did not allow the formation of NOCs for Sint Maarten and Curaçao when they gained the same constitutional status as Aruba in 2010, although the IOC had recognised the Aruban Olympic Committee in 1986.[79][80] Since 2012, athletes from the former Netherlands Antilles have had the option to represent either the Netherlands or Aruba.[81] Cost of the Games See also: Cost of the Olympic Games The Oxford Olympics Study 2016 found that, since 1960, sports-related costs for the Summer Games were on average US$5.2 billion and for the Winter Games $3.1 billion. These figures do not include wider infrastructure costs like roads, urban rail, and airports, which often cost as much or more than the sports-related costs. The most expensive Summer Games were Beijing 2008 at US$40–44 billion,[82] and the most expensive Winter Games were Sochi 2014 at US$51 billion.[83][84] As of 2016, costs per athlete were, on average, US$599,000 for the Summer Games and $1.3 million for the Winter Games; for London 2012, the cost per athlete was $1.4 million, and the figure was $7.9 million for Sochi 2014.[84] Where ambitious construction for the 1976 Summer Games in Montreal and the 1980 Summer Games in Moscow had burdened organisers with expenses greatly in excess of revenues, Los Angeles strictly controlled expenses for the 1984 Summer Games by using existing facilities and only two new that were paid for by corporate sponsors. The Organizing Committee led by Peter Ueberroth used some of the profits to endow the LA84 Foundation to promote youth sports in Southern California, educate coaches and maintain a sports library. The 1984 Summer Olympics are often considered until that date,the most financially successful modern Olympics and a model for future Games.[85] Budget overruns are common for the Games. Average overrun for Games since 1960 is 156% in real terms,[86] which means that actual costs turned out to be on average 2.56 times the budget that was estimated at the time of winning the bid to host the Games. Montreal 1976 had the highest cost overrun for Summer Games, and for any Games, at 720%; Lake Placid 1980 had the highest cost overrun for Winter Games, at 324%. London 2012 had a cost overrun of 76%, Sochi 2014 of 289%.[84] It has been documented that cost and cost overrun for the Games follow a power-law distribution, which means that, first, the Games are prone to large cost overruns and, second, it is only a matter of time until an overrun occurs that is larger than the largest to date. In short, hosting the Games is economically and financially extremely risky.[87] Economic and social impact on host cities and countries Seeking a scholarly institution to independently research the Games, Bob Barney led efforts to establish the International Centre for Olympic Studies in 1989, endeavouring to write about sociocultural impacts of the Olympic Games.[88][89] He felt that the Olympics "is worthy of study because it is one of the biggest meetings in a global context and has many political, economic, and other problems associated with it".[88] He began Olympika in 1992, the first peer-reviewed academic journal focused on the Olympic Games.[90][91] The International Society of Olympic Historians was founded in 1991, which publishes the Journal of Olympic History.[92] Some economists are sceptical about the economic benefits of hosting the Olympic Games, emphasising that such "mega-events" often have large costs while yielding relatively few tangible benefits in the long run.[93] Hosting (or even bidding for) the Olympics appears to increase the host country's exports, as the host or candidate country sends a signal about trade openness when bidding to host the Games.[94] Research suggests that hosting the Summer Olympics has a positive effect on the philanthropic contributions of corporations headquartered in the host city, which seems to benefit the local nonprofit sector. This effect begins in the years leading up to the Games and might persist for several years afterwards, though not permanently.[95] The Games have had significant negative effects on host communities; for example, the Centre on Housing Rights and Evictions reports that the Olympics displaced more than two million people over two decades, often disproportionately affecting disadvantaged groups.[96] The 2014 Winter Olympics in Sochi were the most expensive Olympic Games in history, costing in excess of US$50 billion. According to a report by the European Bank for Reconstruction and Development released at the time of the games, the cost would not boost Russia's national economy, but could attract business to Sochi and the southern Krasnodar region of Russia as a result of improved services. But by December 2014, eight months after the games The Guardian stated that Sochi "now feels like a ghost town", citing the spread-out nature of the stadiums and arenas and the still-unfinished infrastructure.[97] At least four cities withdrew their bids for the 2022 Winter Olympics, citing the high costs or lack of local support,[98] resulting in only a two-city race between Almaty, Kazakhstan and Beijing, China who hosted the 2008 Summer Olympics. The Guardian stated that the biggest threat to the future of the Olympics is few cities or countries want to host them.[99] Bidding for the 2024 Summer Olympics became a two-city race between Paris and Los Angeles, so the IOC took the unusual step of simultaneously awarding both the 2024 Games to Paris and the 2028 Games to Los Angeles. Both of the bids were praised for high technical plans and innovative ways to use a record-breaking number of existing and temporary facilities.[100] International Olympic Committee See also: International Olympic Committee The Olympic Movement encompasses a large number of national and international sporting organisations and federations, recognised media partners, as well as athletes, officials, judges, and every other person and institution that agrees to abide by the rules of the Olympic Charter.[101] As the umbrella organisation of the Olympic Movement, the International Olympic Committee (IOC) is responsible for selecting the host city, overseeing the planning of the Olympic Games, updating and approving the Olympic sports programme, and negotiating sponsorship and broadcasting rights.[102] The Olympic Movement is made of three major elements: International Federations (IFs) are the governing bodies that supervise a sport at an international level. For example, the International Federation of Association Football (FIFA) is the IF for association football, and the Fédération Internationale de Volleyball is the international governing body for volleyball. There are currently 35 IFs in the Olympic Movement, representing each of the Olympic sports.[103] National Olympic Committees (NOCs) represent and regulate the Olympic Movement within each country. For example, the Russian Olympic Committee (ROC) is the NOC of the Russian Federation. There are currently 206 NOCs recognised by the IOC.[104][105] Organising Committees for the Olympic Games (OCOGs) are temporary committees responsible for the organisation of each Olympic Games. OCOGs are dissolved after each Games once the final report is delivered to the IOC.[106] French and English are the official languages of the Olympic Movement. The other language used at each Olympic Games is the language of the host country (or languages, if a country has more than one official language apart from French or English). Every proclamation (such as the announcement of each country during the parade of nations in the opening ceremony) is spoken in these three (or more) languages, or the main two depending on whether the host country is an English or French speaking country: French is always spoken first, followed by an English translation, and then the dominant language of the host nation (when this is not English or French).[107] Allegations of bribery and corruption The IOC has often been accused of being an intractable organisation, with several life members on the committee. The presidential terms of Avery Brundage and Juan Antonio Samaranch were especially controversial. Brundage fought strongly for amateurism and against the commercialisation of the Olympic Games, even as these attitudes came to be seen as incongruous with the realities of modern sports. The advent of state-sponsored athletes from the Eastern Bloc countries further eroded the ideology of the pure amateur, as it placed self-financed amateurs of Western countries at a disadvantage.[108] Brundage was accused of antisemitism and of racism in resisting the exclusion of South Africa.[109] Under the Samaranch presidency, the office was accused of both nepotism and corruption.[110] Samaranch's ties with the Franco regime in Spain were also a source of criticism.[111] In 1998, it was reported that several IOC members had taken gifts from members of the Salt Lake City bid committee for the hosting of the 2002 Winter Olympics. There were soon four independent investigations underway: by the IOC, the United States Olympic Committee (USOC), the Salt Lake Organizing Committee (SLOC), and the United States Department of Justice (DOJ). Although nothing strictly illegal had occurred, it was felt that the acceptance of the gifts was morally dubious. As a result of the investigation, ten members of the IOC were expelled and a further ten sanctioned.[112] Stricter rules were adopted for future bids, and caps were introduced to define how much IOC members could accept from bid cities. Additionally, new term and age limits were put into place for IOC membership, and fifteen former Olympic athletes were added to the committee. Nevertheless, from sporting and business standpoints, the 2002 Olympics were one of the most successful Winter Games in history; records were set in both the broadcasting and marketing programs. Over 2 billion viewers watched more than 13 billion viewer-hours.[113] The 2002 Games were also a financial success, raising more money with fewer sponsors than any prior Olympic Games, leaving SLOC with a surplus of $40 million. This excess revenue was used to create the Utah Athletic Foundation (also known as the Utah Olympic Legacy Foundation), which maintains and operates many of the surviving Olympic venues.[113] It was reported in 1999 that the Nagano Olympic bid committee had spent approximately $14 million on entertaining the 62 IOC members and many of their associates. The precise figures are unknown since Nagano destroyed the financial records after the IOC requested that the entertainment expenditures should not be made public.[114][115] In July 2000, when the Los Angeles Times reported on the tangled nature of how the IOC redistributes profits from sponsorships and broadcasting rights, Olympic historian Bob Barney stated that he had "yet to see matters of corruption in the IOC", but noted there were "matters of unaccountability".[116] He later noted that when the spotlight is on the athletes, it has "the power to eclipse impressions of scandal or corruption", with respect to the Olympic bid process.[117] An August 2004, a BBC documentary, Panorama: Buying the Games, reported the results of an investigation into bribes allegedly used in the bidding process for the 2012 Summer Olympics.[118] The documentary claimed that it was possible to bribe IOC members into voting for a particular candidate city. After being narrowly defeated in their bid for the 2012 Games,[119] Parisian mayor Bertrand Delanoë specifically accused the British prime minister Tony Blair and the London bid committee, headed by former Olympic champion Sebastian Coe, of breaking the bid rules. He cited French president Jacques Chirac as a witness; Chirac gave guarded interviews concerning his involvement[120] but the allegation was never fully explored. Turin's bid to host the 2006 Winter Olympics was also clouded by controversy; a prominent IOC member, Marc Hodler, closely connected to the rival bid of Sion, alleged bribery of IOC officials by members of the Turin Organising Committee. These accusations led to a wide-ranging investigation, and also served to sour many IOC members against Sion's bid which potentially helped Turin to capture the host city nomination.[121] Commercialisation Under national organising committees The Olympic Games have been commercialised to various degrees since the inaugural 1896 Summer Olympics in Athens, when a number of companies paid for advertising,[122] including Kodak.[123][124] In 1908, Oxo, Odol [de] mouthwash, and Indian Foot Powder became official sponsors of the London Olympic Games.[125][126] Coca-Cola first sponsored the Summer Olympics in 1928, and has remained an Olympic sponsor ever since.[122] Before the IOC took control of sponsorship, the NOCs had responsibility for negotiating their own contracts for sponsorship and use of the Olympic symbols.[127] Under IOC control The IOC originally resisted funding by corporate sponsors. It was not until the retirement of IOC President Avery Brundage, in 1972, that the IOC began to explore the potential of the television medium and the lucrative advertising markets available to them.[127] Under the leadership of Juan Antonio Samaranch the Games began to shift toward international sponsors who sought to link their products to the Olympic brand.[128] Budget During the first half of the 20th century, the IOC ran on a small budget.[128][129] As president of the IOC from 1952 to 1972, Avery Brundage rejected all attempts to link the Olympics with commercial interest.[127] Brundage believed the lobby of corporate interests would unduly impact the IOC's decision-making.[127] Brundage's resistance to this revenue stream meant the IOC left organising committees to negotiate their own sponsorship contracts and use the Olympic symbols.[127] When Brundage retired the IOC had US$2 million in assets; eight years later the IOC coffers had swelled to US$45 million.[127] This was primarily due to a shift in ideology toward expansion of the Games through corporate sponsorship and the sale of television rights.[127] When Juan Antonio Samaranch was elected IOC president in 1980 his desire was to make the IOC financially independent.[129] The 1984 Summer Olympics became a watershed moment in Olympic history. The Los Angeles-based organising committee, led by Peter Ueberroth, was able to generate a surplus of US$225 million, which was an unprecedented amount at that time.[130] The organising committee had been able to create such a surplus in part by selling exclusive sponsorship rights to select companies.[130] The IOC sought to gain control of these sponsorship rights. Samaranch helped to establish The Olympic Programme (TOP) in 1985, in order to create an Olympic brand.[128] Membership in TOP was, and is, very exclusive and expensive. Fees cost US$50 million for a four-year membership.[129] Members of TOP received exclusive global advertising rights for their product category, and use of the Olympic symbol, the interlocking rings, in their publications and advertisem*nts.[131] Effect of television A Berliner Illustrirte Zeitung cartoon published during the 1936 Olympics in Berlin envisions the Olympics in 2000 when spectators would be replaced by television and radio with the cheers of spectators broadcast from loudspeakers; despite the prediction, spectators still watch the Olympic games in person and by globally-broadcast television coverage. The 1936 Summer Olympics in Berlin were the first Games to be broadcast on television, though only to local audiences.[132] The 1956 Winter Olympics in Italy were the first internationally televised Olympic Games,[133] and the broadcasting rights for the following Winter Games in California were sold for the first time to specialised television broadcasting networks—CBS paid US$394,000 for the American rights.[134][128] In the following decades, the Olympics became one of the ideological fronts of the Cold War, and the International Olympic Committee wanted to take advantage of this heightened interest via the broadcast medium.[134] The sale of broadcast rights enabled the IOC to increase the exposure of the Olympic Games, thereby generating more interest, which in turn enhanced the appeal of TV air time to the advertisers. This cycle allowed the IOC to charge ever-increasing fees for those rights.[134] For example, CBS paid US$375 million for the American broadcast rights for the 1998 Nagano Games,[135] while NBC spent US$3.5 billion for the American rights to air every Olympic Games from 2000 to 2012.[128] In 2011, NBC agreed to a $4.38 billion contract with the IOC to broadcast the Olympics through the 2020 Games, the most expensive television rights deal in Olympic history.[136] NBC then agreed to a $7.75 billion contract extension on 7 May 2014, to air the Olympics through the 2032 Games.[137] NBC also acquired the American television rights to the Youth Olympic Games, beginning in 2014,[138] and the Paralympic Games.[139] More than half of the Olympic Committee's global sponsors are American companies,[140] and NBC is one of the major sources of revenue for the IOC.[140] Viewership increased exponentially from the 1960s until the end of the 20th century. This was due to the advent of satellites for broadcasting live television worldwide starting in 1964, and the introduction of colour television in 1968.[141] The global audience for the 1968 Mexico City Games was estimated to be 600 million, whereas the audience numbers at the Los Angeles Games of 1984 had increased to 900 million; this number had swelled to 3.5 billion by the 1992 Summer Olympics in Barcelona.[142][143][144][145][146] With such high costs charged to broadcast the Games, the added pressure of the internet, and increased competition from cable, the television lobby demanded concessions from the IOC to boost ratings. The IOC responded by making a number of changes to the Olympic programme; at the Summer Games, the gymnastics competition was expanded from seven to nine nights, and a Champions Gala was added to attract greater interest;[147] the events programmes were also expanded for swimming and diving, both popular sports with a broad base of television viewers.[147] Due to the substantial fees NBC has paid for rights to the Olympics, the IOC has allowed the network to influence the event scheduling to maximise U.S. television ratings when possible.[148][145][149][150] Notable examples of maximizing U.S. television viewership include scheduling the finals of the swimming events only during the mornings of the host cities Beijing (during the 2008 Summer Olympics) and Tokyo (during the 2020 Summer Olympics), which coincide with the evening prime time broadcast slots of the United States.[151][152][153][154][155] Olympic marketing The sale of the Olympic brand has been controversial. The argument is that the Games have become indistinguishable from any other commercialised sporting spectacle.[131][156][156] Another criticism is that the Games are funded by host cities and national governments; the IOC incurs none of the cost, yet controls all the rights and profits from the Olympic symbols. The IOC also takes a percentage of all sponsorship and broadcast income.[131] Host cities continue to compete ardently for the right to host the Games, even though there is no certainty that they will earn back their investments.[157] Research has shown that trade is around 30 percent higher for countries that have hosted the Olympics.[158] Symbols Main article: Olympic symbols The Olympic flag The Olympic Movement uses symbols to represent the ideals embodied in the Olympic Charter. The Olympic symbol, better known as the Olympic rings, consists of five intertwined rings and represents the unity of the five inhabited continents (Africa, The Americas (is considered one continent), Asia, Europe, and Oceania). The coloured version of the rings—blue, yellow, black, green, and red—over a white field forms the Olympic flag. These colours were chosen because every nation had at least one of them on its national flag. The flag was adopted in 1914 but flown for the first time only at the 1920 Summer Olympics in Antwerp, Belgium. It has since been hoisted during each celebration of the Games.[159][160] The Olympic motto, Citius, Altius, Fortius, a Latin expression meaning "Faster, Higher, Stronger" was proposed by Pierre de Coubertin in 1894 and has been official since 1924. The motto was coined by Coubertin's friend, the Dominican priest Henri Didon OP, for a Paris youth gathering of 1891.[161] Coubertin's Olympic ideals are expressed in the Olympic creed: The most important thing in the Olympic Games is not to win but to take part, just as the most important thing in life is not the triumph but the struggle. The essential thing is not to have conquered but to have fought well.[159] Months before each Games, the Olympic Flame is lit at the Temple of Hera in Olympia in a ceremony that reflects ancient Greek rituals. A female performer, acting as a priestess joined by ten female performers as Vestal Virgins, ignites a torch by placing it inside a parabolic mirror which focuses the sun's rays; she then lights the torch of the first relay bearer (who also is a Greek athlete), thus initiating the Olympic torch relay that will carry the flame to the host city's Olympic stadium, where it plays an important role in the opening ceremony.[162] Though the flame has been an Olympic symbol since 1928, the torch relay was only introduced at the 1936 Summer Games to promote the Third Reich.[159][163] The Paris 2024 Olympic Phryge in front of the Parthenon in Athens, Greece The Olympic mascot, an animal, a human or an anthropomorphic figure representing the cultural heritage of the host country, was introduced in 1968. It has played an important part of the Games' identity promotion since the 1980 Summer Olympics, when the Soviet bear cub Misha reached international stardom. The mascot of the Summer Olympics in London was named Wenlock after the town of Much Wenlock in Shropshire. Much Wenlock still hosts the Wenlock Olympian Games, which were an inspiration to Pierre de Coubertin for the Olympic Games.[164] The mascot for the Paris 2024 Olympic Games is an anthropomorphic Phrygian cap based on the one Marianne wore at the time of the French Revolution.[165] Ceremonies Main article: Olympic Games ceremony Opening ceremony Opening ceremony of the 2020 Summer Olympics in Tokyo As mandated by the Olympic Charter, various elements frame the opening ceremony of the Olympic Games. This ceremony takes place on a Friday and is held prior to the commencement of the sporting events (apart from some group-stage football matches, softball games, and rowing heats).[166][167] Most of the rituals for the opening ceremony were established at the 1920 Summer Olympics in Antwerp.[168] The ceremony typically starts with the entrance of the president of the International Olympic Committee and a representative of the host country followed by the hoisting of the host country's flag and a performance of its national anthem.[166][167] The host nation then presents artistic displays of music, singing, dance, and theatre representative of its culture.[168] The artistic presentations have grown in scale and complexity as successive hosts attempt to provide a ceremony that outlasts its predecessor's in terms of memorability. The opening ceremony of the Beijing Games reportedly cost $100 million, with much of the cost incurred in the artistic segment.[169] After the artistic portion of the ceremony, the athletes parade into the stadium grouped by nation. Greece is traditionally the first nation to enter and leads the parade in order to honour the origins of the Olympics. Nations then enter the stadium alphabetically according to the host country's chosen language, with the host country's athletes being the last to enter. During the 2004 Summer Olympics, which was hosted in Athens, Greece, the Greek flag entered the stadium first, while the Greek delegation entered last. Beginning with the 2020 Summer Olympics, the succeeding hosts of the respective Olympic Games (summer or winter) will enter immediately before the current host in descending order. Speeches are given by the President of the Organizing Committee, the IOC president, and the head of state/representative of the host country, formally opening the Games. Finally, the Olympic torch is brought into the stadium and passed on until it reaches the final torch carrier, often a successful Olympic athlete from the host nation, who lights the Olympic flame in the stadium's cauldron.[166][167] Closing ceremony Athletes gather in the stadium during the closing ceremony of the 2008 Summer Olympics in Beijing The closing ceremony of the Olympic Games takes place on a Sunday and after all sporting events have concluded. Flag-bearers from each participating country enter the stadium, followed by the athletes who enter together, without any national distinction.[170] Three national flags are hoisted while the corresponding national anthems are played: the flag of the current host country; the flag of Greece, to honour the birthplace of the Olympic Games; and the flag of the country hosting the next Summer or Winter Olympic Games.[170] The president of the organising committee and the IOC president make their closing speeches, the Games are officially closed, and the Olympic flame is extinguished.[171] In what is known as the Antwerp Ceremony, the current mayor of the city that organised the Games transfers a special Olympic flag to the president of the IOC, who then passes it on to the current mayor of the city hosting the next Olympic Games.[172] The next host nation then also briefly introduces itself with artistic displays of dance and theatre representative of its culture.[170] As is customary, the last medal presentation of the Games is held as part of the closing ceremony. Typically, the marathon medals are presented at the Summer Olympics,[170][173] while the cross-country skiing mass start medals are awarded at the Winter Olympics.[174] Medal presentation A medal ceremony at the 2008 Summer Olympics with (from left to right): the Danish flag, the Union Flag of the UK, and the New Zealand flag A medal ceremony is held after the conclusion of each Olympic event. The winner, and the second- and third-place competitors or teams, stand on top of a three-tiered rostrum to be awarded their respective medals by a member of the IOC.[175] After the medals have been received, the national flags of the three medallists are raised while the national anthem of the gold medallist's country is played.[176] Volunteering citizens of the host country also act as hosts during the medal ceremonies, assisting the officials who present the medals and acting as flag-bearers.[177] In the Summer Olympics, each medal ceremony is held at the venue where the event has taken place,[178] but the ceremonies at the Winter Olympics are usually held in a special "plaza".[179] The practice of awarding Olympic medals at podium ceremonies was established at the 1932 Winter Olympics, based on pedestals used at the 1930 British Empire Games, as proposed by Melville Marks Robinson.[180] Sports Main article: Olympic sports The Olympic Games programme consists of 35 sports, 30 disciplines and 408 events. For example, wrestling is a Summer Olympic sport, comprising two disciplines: Greco-Roman and Freestyle. It is further broken down into fourteen events for men and four events for women, each representing a different weight class.[181] The Summer Olympics programme includes 26 sports, while the Winter Olympics programme features 15 sports.[182] Athletics, swimming, fencing, and artistic gymnastics are the only summer sports that have never been absent from the Olympic programme. Cross-country skiing, figure skating, ice hockey, Nordic combined, ski jumping, and speed skating have been featured at every Winter Olympics programme since its inception in 1924. Current Olympic sports, like badminton, basketball, and volleyball, first appeared on the programme as demonstration sports, and were later promoted to full Olympic sports. Some sports that were featured in earlier Games were later dropped from the programme.[183] Olympic sports are governed by international sports federations (IFs) recognised by the IOC as the global supervisors of those sports. There are 35 federations represented at the IOC.[184] There are sports recognised by the IOC that are not included in the Olympic programme. These sports are not considered Olympic sports, but they can be promoted to this status during a programme revision that occurs in the first IOC session following a celebration of the Olympic Games.[185][186] During such revisions, sports can be excluded or included in the programme on the basis of a two-thirds majority vote of the members of the IOC.[187] There are recognised sports that have never been on an Olympic programme in any capacity, for example, orienteering.[188] In October and November 2004, the IOC established an Olympic Programme Commission, which was tasked with reviewing the sports on the Olympic programme and all non-Olympic recognised sports. The goal was to apply a systematic approach to establishing the Olympic programme for each celebration of the Games.[189] The commission formulated seven criteria to judge whether a sport should be included on the Olympic programme.[189] These criteria are history and tradition of the sport, universality, popularity of the sport, image, athletes' health, development of the International Federation that governs the sport, and costs of holding the sport.[189] From this study five recognised sports emerged as candidates for inclusion at the 2012 Summer Olympics: golf, karate, rugby sevens, roller sports and squash.[189] These sports were reviewed by the IOC Executive Board and then referred to the General Session in Singapore in July 2005. Of the five sports recommended for inclusion only two were selected as finalists: karate and squash.[189] Neither sport attained the required two-thirds vote and consequently they were not promoted to the Olympic programme.[189] In October 2009 the IOC voted to instate golf and rugby sevens as Olympic sports for the 2016 and 2020 Summer Olympic Games.[190] The 114th IOC Session, in 2002, limited the Summer Games programme to a maximum of 28 sports, 301 events, and 10,500 athletes.[189] Three years later, at the 117th IOC Session, the first major programme revision was performed, which resulted in the exclusion of baseball and softball from the official programme of the 2012 London Games. Since there was no agreement in the promotion of two other sports, the 2012 programme featured just 26 sports.[189] The 2016 and 2020 Games will return to the maximum of 28 sports given the addition of rugby and golf.[190] Amateurism and professionalism Further information: Amateur sports The Gold medal game between Russia and Czech Republic at the 1998 Winter Olympics; professional NHL players have been permitted to participate in ice hockey since then. The ethos of the aristocracy as exemplified in the English public school greatly influenced Pierre de Coubertin.[191] The public schools subscribed to the belief that sport formed an important part of education, an attitude summed up in the saying mens sana in corpore sano, a sound mind in a sound body. In this ethos, a gentleman was one who became an all-rounder, not the best at one specific thing. There was also a prevailing concept of fairness, in which practising or training was considered tantamount to cheating.[191] Those who practised a sport professionally were considered to have an unfair advantage over those who practised it merely as a hobby.[191] The exclusion of professionals caused several controversies throughout the history of the modern Olympics. The 1912 Olympic pentathlon and decathlon champion Jim Thorpe was stripped of his medals when it was discovered that he had played semi-professional baseball before the Olympics. His medals were posthumously restored by the IOC in 1983 after a ruling found that the decision to strip him of his medals fell outside of the 30-day period.[192] Swiss and Austrian skiers boycotted the 1936 Winter Olympics in support of their skiing teachers, who were not allowed to compete because they earned money with their sport and were thus considered professionals.[193] The advent of the state-sponsored "full-time amateur athlete" of the Eastern Bloc countries eroded the ideology of the pure amateur, as it put the self-financed amateurs of the Western countries at a disadvantage. The Soviet Union entered teams of athletes who were all nominally students, soldiers, or working in a profession, but all of whom were in reality paid by the state to train on a full-time basis.[194][195][191] The situation greatly disadvantaged American and Western European athletes, and was a major factor in the decline of American medal hauls in the 1970s and 1980s.[196] As a result, the Olympics shifted away from amateurism, as envisioned by Pierre de Coubertin, to allowing participation of professional athletes,[197] but only in the 1990s, after the collapse of the Soviet Union and its influence within the International Olympic Committee.[198][199][200] Team Canada ice hockey dispute Near the end of the 1960s, the Canadian Amateur Hockey Association (CAHA) felt their amateur players could no longer be competitive against the Soviet team's full-time athletes and the other constantly improving European teams. They pushed for the ability to use players from professional leagues but met opposition from the IIHF and IOC. At the IIHF Congress in 1969, the IIHF decided to allow Canada to use nine non-NHL professional hockey players[201] at the 1970 World Championships in Montreal and Winnipeg, Canada.[202] The decision was reversed in January 1970 after Brundage said that ice hockey's status as an Olympic sport would be in jeopardy if the change was made.[201] In response, Canada withdrew from international ice hockey competition and officials stated that they would not return until "open competition" was instituted.[201][203] Günther Sabetzki became president of the IIHF in 1975 and helped to resolve the dispute with the CAHA. In 1976, the IIHF agreed to allow "open competition" between all players in the World Championships. However, NHL players were still not allowed to play in the Olympics until 1988, because of the IOC's amateur-only policy.[204] Controversies Main article: List of Olympic Games scandals and controversies Boycotts Main article: List of Olympic Games boycotts Countries that boycotted the 1956 Summer Olympics (shaded blue) Countries that boycotted the 1964 Summer Olympics (shaded red) Countries that boycotted the 1976 Summer Olympics (shaded blue) Countries that boycotted the 1980 Summer Olympics (shaded blue) Countries that boycotted the 1984 Summer Olympics (shaded blue) Australia, France, Greece, Switzerland and the United Kingdom are the only countries to be represented at every Olympic Games since their inception in 1896. While countries sometimes miss an Olympics due to a lack of qualified athletes, some choose to boycott a celebration of the Games for various reasons. The Olympic Council of Ireland boycotted the 1936 Berlin Games, because the IOC insisted its team needed to be restricted to the Irish Free State rather than representing the entire island of Ireland.[205] There were three boycotts of the 1956 Melbourne Olympics: the Netherlands, Spain, and Switzerland refused to attend because of the repression of the Hungarian uprising by the Soviet Union, but did send an equestrian delegation to Stockholm; Cambodia, Egypt, Iraq, and Lebanon boycotted the Games because of the Suez Crisis; and the People's Republic of China boycotted the Games due to the participation of the Republic of China, composed of athletes coming from Taiwan.[206] In 1972 and 1976 a large number of African countries threatened the IOC with a boycott to force them to ban South Africa and Rhodesia, because of their segregationist rule. New Zealand was also one of the African boycott targets, because its national rugby union team had toured apartheid-ruled South Africa. The IOC conceded in the first two cases, but refused to ban New Zealand on the grounds that rugby was not an Olympic sport.[207] Fulfilling their threat, twenty African countries were joined by Guyana and Iraq in a withdrawal from the Montreal Games, after a few of their athletes had already competed.[207][208] The Republic of China (Taiwan) was excluded from the 1976 Games by order of Pierre Elliott Trudeau, the prime minister of Canada. Trudeau's action was widely condemned as having brought shame on Canada for having succumbed to political pressure to keep the Chinese delegation from competing under its name.[209] The ROC refused a proposed compromise that would have still allowed them to use the ROC flag and anthem as long as the name was changed.[210] Athletes from Taiwan did not participate again until 1984, when they returned under the name of Chinese Taipei and with a special flag and anthem.[211] In 1980 and 1984, the Cold War opponents boycotted each other's Games. The United States and sixty-five other countries boycotted the Moscow Olympics in 1980 because of the Soviet invasion of Afghanistan. This boycott reduced the number of nations participating to 80, the lowest number since 1956.[212] The Soviet Union and 15 other nations countered by boycotting the Los Angeles Olympics of 1984. Although a boycott led by the Soviet Union depleted the field in certain sports, 140 National Olympic Committees took part, which was a record at the time.[5] The fact that Romania, a Warsaw Pact country, opted to compete despite Soviet demands led to a warm reception of the Romanian team by the United States. When the Romanian athletes entered during the opening ceremonies, they received a standing ovation from the spectators, which comprised mostly U.S. citizens. The boycotting nations of the Eastern Bloc staged their own alternate event, the Friendship Games, in July and August.[213][214] There had been growing calls for boycotts of Chinese goods and the 2008 Olympics in Beijing in protest of China's human rights record, and in response to Tibetan disturbances. Ultimately, no nation supported a boycott.[215][216] In August 2008, the government of Georgia called for a boycott of the 2014 Winter Olympics, set to be held in Sochi, Russia, in response to Russia's participation in the 2008 South Ossetia war.[217][218] Continuing human rights violations in China have led to "diplomatic boycotts", where athletes still compete at the Games but diplomats do not attend, of the 2022 Winter Olympics in Beijing by several countries, most notably the United States.[219][220] Politics Jesse Owens on the podium after winning the long jump at the 1936 Summer Olympics, where he won four Gold medals; in his 1980 obituary, The New York Times called him "perhaps the greatest and most famous athlete in track and field history".[221] Gold medalist Tommie Smith (center) and bronze medalist John Carlos (right) showing the raised fist on the podium after the 200 m race at the 1968 Summer Olympics; both wear Olympic Project for Human Rights badges. Peter Norman (silver medalist, left) from Australia also wears an OPHR badge in solidarity with Smith and Carlos. The Olympic Games have been used as a platform to promote political ideologies almost from its inception. Nazi Germany wished to portray the National Socialist Party as benevolent and peace-loving when they hosted the 1936 Games, though they used the Games to display Aryan superiority.[222] Germany was the most successful nation at the Games, which did much to support their allegations of Aryan supremacy, but notable victories by African American Jesse Owens, who won four gold medals, and Hungarian Jew Ibolya Csák, blunted the message.[223] The Soviet Union did not participate until the 1952 Summer Olympics in Helsinki. Instead, starting in 1928, the Soviets organised an international sports event called Spartakiads. During the interwar period of the 1920s and 1930s, communist and socialist organisations in several countries, including the United States, attempted to counter what they called the "bourgeois" Olympics with the Workers Olympics.[224][225] It was not until the 1956 Summer Games that the Soviets emerged as a sporting superpower and, in doing so, took full advantage of the publicity that came with winning at the Olympics.[226] Soviet Union's success might be attributed to a heavy state's investment in sports to fulfill its political agenda on an international stage.[227][195] Individual athletes have also used the Olympic stage to promote their own political agenda. At the 1968 Summer Olympics in Mexico City, two American track and field athletes, Tommie Smith and John Carlos, who finished first and third in the 200 metres, performed the Black Power salute on the victory stand. The second-place finisher, Peter Norman of Australia, wore an Olympic Project for Human Rights badge in support of Smith and Carlos. In response to the protest, IOC president Avery Brundage ordered Smith and Carlos suspended from the US team and banned from the Olympic Village. When the US Olympic Committee refused, Brundage threatened to ban the entire US track team. This threat led to the expulsion of the two athletes from the Games.[228] In another notable incident in the gymnastics competition, while standing on the medal podium after the balance beam event final, in which Natalia Kuchinskaya of the Soviet Union had controversially taken the gold, Czechoslovakian gymnast Věra Čáslavská quietly turned her head down and away during the playing of the Soviet national anthem. The action was Čáslavská's silent protest against the recent Soviet invasion of Czechoslovakia. Her protest was repeated when she accepted her medal for her floor exercise routine when the judges changed the preliminary scores of the Soviet Larisa Petrik to allow her to tie with Čáslavská for the gold. While Čáslavská's countrymen supported her actions and her outspoken opposition to Communism (she had publicly signed and supported Ludvik Vaculik's "Two Thousand Words" manifesto), the new regime responded by banning her from both sporting events and international travel for many years and made her an outcast from society until the fall of communism. Currently, the government of Iran has taken steps to avoid any competition between its athletes and those from Israel. An Iranian judoka, Arash Miresmaeili, did not compete in a match against an Israeli during the 2004 Summer Olympics. Although he was officially disqualified for being overweight, Miresmaeli was awarded US$125,000 in prize money by the Iranian government, an amount paid to all Iranian gold medal winners. He was officially cleared of intentionally avoiding the bout, but his receipt of the prize money raised suspicion.[229] In 2022, in the wake of the Russian invasion of Ukraine, the IOC Executive Board "recommends no participation of Russian and Belarusian athletes and officials, urges International Sports Federations and organizers of sports events worldwide to do everything in their power to ensure that no athlete or sports official from Russia or Belarus be allowed to take part under the name of Russia or Belarus."[230] Use of performance-enhancing drugs Main article: Use of performance-enhancing drugs in the Olympic Games Thomas Hicks running the marathon at the 1904 Olympics in St. Louis In the early 20th century, many Olympic athletes began using drugs to improve their athletic abilities. For example, in 1904, Thomas Hicks, a gold medallist in the marathon, was given strychnine by his coach (at the time, taking different substances was allowed, as there was no data regarding the effect of these substances on a body of an athlete).[231] The only Olympic death linked to performance enhancing occurred at the 1960 Summer Olympics in Rome. A Danish cyclist, Knud Enemark Jensen, fell from his bicycle and later died. A coroner's inquiry found that he was under the influence of amphetamines.[232] By the mid-1960s, sports federations started to ban the use of performance-enhancing drugs; in 1967 the IOC followed suit.[233] According to British journalist Andrew Jennings, a KGB colonel stated that the agency's officers had posed as anti-doping authorities from the International Olympic Committee to undermine doping tests and that Soviet athletes were "rescued with [these] tremendous efforts".[234] On the topic of the 1980 Summer Olympics, a 1989 Australian study said "There is hardly a medal winner at the Moscow Games, certainly not a gold medal winner, who is not on one sort of drug or another: usually several kinds. The Moscow Games might as well have been called the Chemists' Games."[234] In 2016, documents obtained revealed the Soviet Union's plans for a statewide doping system in track and field in preparation for the 1984 Summer Olympics in Los Angeles. Dated prior to the country's decision to boycott the Games, the document detailed the existing steroids operations of the program, along with suggestions for further enhancements.[235] The communication, directed to the Soviet Union's head of track and field, was prepared by Sergei Portugalov of the Institute for Physical Culture. Portugalov was also one of the main figures involved in the implementation of the Russian doping programme prior to the 2016 Summer Olympics.[235] The first Olympic athlete to test positive for the use of performance-enhancing drugs was Hans-Gunnar Liljenwall, a Swedish pentathlete at the 1968 Summer Olympics, who lost his bronze medal for alcohol use.[236] One of the most publicised doping-related disqualifications occurred after the 1988 Summer Olympics where Canadian sprinter Ben Johnson (who won the 100-metre dash) tested positive for stanozolol.[237] In 1999, the IOC formed the World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA) in an effort to systematise the research and detection of performance-enhancing drugs. There was a sharp increase in positive drug tests at the 2000 Summer Olympics and 2002 Winter Olympics due to improved testing conditions. Several medallists in weightlifting and cross-country skiing from post-Soviet states were disqualified because of doping offences. The IOC-established drug testing regimen (now known as the Olympic Standard) has set the worldwide benchmark that other sporting federations attempt to emulate.[238] During the Beijing games, 3,667 athletes were tested by the IOC under the auspices of the World Anti-Doping Agency. Both urine and blood tests were used to detect banned substances.[232][239] In London over 6,000 Olympic and Paralympic athletes were tested. Prior to the Games 107 athletes tested positive for banned substances and were not allowed to compete.[240][241][242] Russian doping scandal This article appears to be slanted towards recent events. Please try to keep recent events in historical perspective and add more content related to non-recent events. (December 2022) Further information: Doping in Russia, McLaren Report, Russia at the 2012 Summer Olympics § Russian doping scandal, Russia at the 2014 Winter Olympics, Russia at the 2016 Summer Olympics, Olympic Athletes from Russia at the 2018 Winter Olympics, and Oswald Commission Doping in Russian sports has a systemic nature. Russia has had 44 Olympic medals stripped for doping violations – the most of any country, and more than a quarter of the global total. From 2011 to 2015, more than a thousand Russian competitors in various sports, including summer, winter, and Paralympic sports, benefited from a cover-up.[243][244][245][246] Russia was partially banned from the 2016 Summer Olympics and was banned from the 2018 Winter Olympics (while still being allowed to participate as the "Olympic Athletes from Russia") due to the state-sponsored doping programme.[247][248] In December 2019, Russia was banned for four years from all major sporting events for systematic doping and lying to WADA.[249] The ban was issued by WADA on 9 December 2019, and the Russian anti-doping agency RUSADA had 21 days to make an appeal to the Court of Arbitration for Sport (CAS). The ban meant that Russian athletes would only be allowed to compete under the Olympic flag after passing anti-doping tests.[250] Russia appealed the decision to the CAS.[251] The CAS, on review of Russia's appeal of its case from WADA, ruled on 17 December 2020, to reduce the penalty that WADA had placed. Instead of banning Russia from sporting events, the ruling allowed Russia to participate at the Olympics and other international events, but for a period of two years, the team cannot use the Russian name, flag, or anthem and must present themselves as "Neutral Athlete" or "Neutral Team". The ruling does allow for team uniforms to display "Russia" on the uniform as well as the use of the Russian flag colors within the uniform's design, although the name should be up to equal predominance as the "Neutral Athlete/Team" designation.[252] In February 2022, during the Beijing Olympics, the international news media reported on 9 February that the issue of doping was again raised over a positive test for trimetazidine by the ROC's Kamila Valieva,[253][254] which was officially confirmed on 11 February.[255] Valieva's sample in question was taken by the Russian Anti-Doping Agency (RUSADA) at the 2022 Russian Figure Skating Championships on 25 December, but the sample was not analyzed at the World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA) laboratory where it was sent for testing until 8 February, one day after the team event concluded.[256] The Court of Arbitration for Sport (CAS) was expected to hear the case on 13 February with a decision scheduled for announcement on 14 February ahead of her scheduled appearance in the women's singles event beginning 15 February.[257][258] Due to Valieva being a minor at the time, as well as being classified as a "protected person" under WADA guidelines, RUSADA and the IOC announced on 12 February that they would broaden the scope of their respective investigations to include members of her entourage (e.g. coaches, team doctors, etc.).[259] By the end of the Beijing Olympics, a total five athletes were reported for doping violations.[260] A decision by RUSADA was issued in mid-October, which was endorsed by WADA, stating that the details of the Valieva hearing and its scheduled dates would be placed under international guidelines for the protection of minors (Valieva was 15 years old when the positive test results were disclosed) and not to be disclosed publicly. [261] Although Russia as a country is currently banned from participating in international skating events due to the 2022 Russian invasion of Ukraine, Valieva has continued to compete within Russian borders without being hindered by RUSADA as recently as the Russian Grand Prix held in October 2022.[262] In mid-November, WADA requested that CAS take up the review of the Valieva case with an eye towards a 4-year suspension of Valieva, which would exclude her from competition at the next Winter Olympics, and to rescind her first-place performance at the previous Beijing Olympics because, "the Russian Anti-Doping Agency (RUSADA) did not meet a WADA-imposed Nov. 4 deadline to deliver a verdict on Valiyeva's case."[263] Sex discrimination Main article: Participation of women in the Olympics Charlotte Cooper of the United Kingdom, the first female Olympic champion, in the 1900 Games Women were first allowed to compete at the 1900 Summer Olympics in Paris, but at the 1992 Summer Olympics 35 countries were still only fielding all-male delegations.[264] This number dropped rapidly over the following years. In 2000, Bahrain sent two women competitors for the first time: Fatema Hameed Gerashi and Mariam Mohamed Hadi Al Hilli.[265] In 2004, Robina Muqimyar and Fariba Rezayee became the first women to compete for Afghanistan at the Olympics.[266] In 2008, the United Arab Emirates sent female athletes for the first time; Maitha Al Maktoum competed in taekwondo, and Latifa Al Maktoum in equestrian. Both athletes were from Dubai's ruling family.[267] By 2010, only three countries had never sent female athletes to the Games: Brunei, Saudi Arabia, and Qatar. Brunei had taken part in only three celebrations of the Games, sending a single athlete on each occasion, but Saudi Arabia and Qatar had been competing regularly with all-male teams. In 2010, the International Olympic Committee announced it would "press" these countries to enable and facilitate the participation of women for the 2012 Summer Olympics in London. Anita DeFrantz, chair of the IOC's Women and Sports Commission, suggested that countries be barred if they prevented women from competing. Shortly thereafter, the Qatar Olympic Committee announced that it "hoped to send up to four female athletes in shooting and fencing" to the 2012 Summer Games.[268] In 2008, Ali Al-Ahmed, director of the Institute for Gulf Affairs, likewise called for Saudi Arabia to be barred from the Games, describing its ban on women athletes as a violation of the International Olympic Committee charter. He noted: "For the last 15 years, many international nongovernmental organisations worldwide have been trying to lobby the IOC for better enforcement of its own laws banning gender discrimination. While their efforts did result in increasing numbers of women Olympians, the IOC has been reluctant to take a strong position and threaten the discriminating countries with suspension or expulsion."[264] In July 2010, The Independent reported: "Pressure is growing on the International Olympic Committee to kick out Saudi Arabia, who are likely to be the only major nation not to include women in their Olympic team for 2012. ... Should Saudi Arabia ... send a male-only team to London, we understand they will face protests from equal rights and women's groups which threaten to disrupt the Games".[269] At the 2012 Summer Olympics, every participating nation included female athletes for the first time in Olympic history.[270] Saudi Arabia included two female athletes in its delegation; Qatar, four; and Brunei, one (Maziah Mahusin, in the 400 m hurdles). Qatar made one of its first female Olympians, Bahiya al-Hamad (shooting), its flagbearer at the 2012 Games,[271] and runner Maryam Yusuf Jamal of Bahrain became the first Persian Gulf female athlete to win a medal when she won a bronze for her showing in the 1500 m race.[272] The only sports on the Olympic programme that features men and women competing together are the equestrian disciplines. There is no "Women's Eventing", or "Men's Dressage". As of 2008, there were still more medal events for men than women. With the addition of women's boxing to the programme in the 2012 Summer Olympics, however, women athletes were able to compete in all the sports open to men.[273] In the winter Olympics, women are still unable to compete in the Nordic combined.[274] There are currently two Olympic events in which male athletes may not compete: synchronised swimming and rhythmic gymnastics.[275] War and terrorism The world wars caused three Olympiads to pass without a celebration of the Games: the 1916 Games were cancelled because of World War I, and the summer and winter games of 1940 and 1944 were cancelled because of World War II. The Russo-Georgian War between Georgia and Russia erupted on the opening day of the 2008 Summer Olympics in Beijing. Both American President George W. Bush and Russian Prime Minister Vladimir Putin were attending the Olympics at that time and spoke together about the conflict at a luncheon hosted by the Chinese president Hu Jintao.[276][277] Terrorism most directly affected the Olympic Games in 1972. When the Summer Games were held in Munich, Germany, eleven members of the Israeli Olympic team were taken hostage by the Palestinian terrorist group Black September in what is now known as the Munich massacre. The terrorists killed two of the athletes soon after taking them hostage and killed the other nine during a failed liberation attempt. A German police officer and five of the terrorists also died.[278] Following the selection of Barcelona, Spain, to host the 1992 Summer Olympics, the separatist ETA terrorist organisation launched attacks in the region, including the 1991 bombing in the Catalonian city of Vic that killed ten people.[279][280] Terrorism affected two Olympic Games held in the United States. During the 1996 Summer Olympics in Atlanta, a bomb was detonated at the Centennial Olympic Park, killing two people and injuring 111 others. The bomb was set by Eric Rudolph, an American domestic terrorist, who is serving a life sentence for the bombing.[281] The 2002 Winter Olympics in Salt Lake City took place just five months after the September 11 attacks, which meant a higher level of security than ever before provided for an Olympic Games. The opening ceremonies of the Games featured symbols relating to 9/11, including the flag that flew at Ground Zero and honour guards of NYPD and FDNY members.[282] Citizenship IOC rules for citizenship The Olympic Charter requires that an athlete be a national of the country for which they compete. Dual nationals may compete for either country, as long as three years have passed since the competitor competed for the former country. However, if the NOCs and IF involved agree, then the IOC Executive Board may reduce or cancel this period.[283] This waiting period exists only for athletes who previously competed for one nation and want to compete for another. If an athlete gains a new or second nationality, then they do not need to wait any designated amount of time before participating for the new or second nation. The IOC is only concerned with issues of citizenship and nationality after individual nations have granted citizenship to athletes.[284] In October 2023, the IOC suspended the Russian Olympic Committee, and the suspension was upheld in February 2024 by the Court of Arbitration for Sport.[285] Without any NOC from Russia to approve a change of citizenship in under three years from Russia to another country, the IOC Executive Board approved changes of nationality in November 2023 and March 2024 for a total of five athletes from Russia to another country, including Georgi Tiblov and Aleksandr Komarov in wrestling (from Russia to Serbia), Mikhail Yakolev in cycling (from Russia to Israel), and Anastasiia Kirpichnikova in swimming (from Russia to France).[286][287][288][289] Reasons for changing citizenship Occasionally, an athlete will become a citizen of a different country to enable them to compete in the Olympics. This is often because they are attracted to sponsorship deals or training facilities in the other country, or the athlete might be unable to qualify from within their country of birth. In preparation for the 2014 Winter Olympics in Sochi, the Russian Olympic Committee naturalised a South Korean-born short-track speed-skater, Ahn Hyun-soo, and an American-born snowboarder, Vic Wild. The two athletes won five gold medals and one bronze medal between them at the 2014 Games.[290] Champions and medallists Further information: Lists of Olympic medalists and List of multiple Olympic gold medalists Paavo Nurmi, a Finnish middle-distance and long-distance runner, nicknamed the "Flying Finn" or the "Phantom Finn", set 22 official world records at distances between 1500 m and 20 km, winning nine golds and three silvers in his 12 events at the 1924 Summer Olympics. Medals are awarded to the athletes or teams who place first, second, and third in each event. The winners receive gold medals, which were solid gold until 1912, later made of gilded silver, and now gold-plated silver. Every gold medal must contain at least six grams of pure gold.[291] The runners-up are awarded silver medals and the third-place athletes receive bronze medals. In events contested by a single-elimination tournament (most notably boxing), third place might not be determined and the losers of both semi-finals each receive a bronze medal. At the 1896 Olympics, only the winner and runner-up of each event received medals—silver for first and bronze for second, with no gold medals awarded. The current three-medal format was introduced at the 1904 Olympics.[292] From 1948 onward, athletes placing fourth, fifth, and sixth have received certificates, which came to be known officially as Olympic diplomas; from 1984, these have also been awarded to the seventh- and eighth-place finishers. At the 2004 Summer Olympics in Athens, the gold, silver, and bronze medal winners were also presented with olive wreaths.[293] The IOC does not keep statistics of medals won on a national level (except for team sports), but the NOCs and the media record medal statistics and use them as a measure of each nation's success.[294] Nations Participants Main articles: List of participating nations at the Summer Olympic Games and List of participating nations at the Winter Olympic Games As of the 2020 Summer Games in Tokyo, all of the current 207 NOCs (and 19 obsolete NOCs) have participated in at least one edition of the Summer Olympics. Competitors from five nations—Australia, France,[d] Great Britain,[e] Greece, and Switzerland[f]—have competed in all 28 Summer Olympics. Athletes competing under the Olympic flag, Mixed Teams and the Refugee Team have competed at six Summer Olympics Games. A total of 119 NOCs (110 of the current 207 NOCs, and nine obsolete NOCs) have participated in at least one edition of the Winter Olympics. Competitors from 12 nations — Austria, Canada, Finland, France, Great Britain, Hungary, Italy, Norway, Poland, Sweden, Switzerland, and the United States — have participated in all 23 Winter Games to date. Host nations and cities Main article: List of Olympic Games host cities See also: List of Olympic medals by host nation Map of Summer Olympics locations with countries that have hosted one Summer Olympics shaded in green and countries that have hosted two or more shaded in blue Map of Winter Olympics locations with countries that have hosted one Winter Olympics shaded in green and countries that have hosted two or more are shaded blue The host city for an Olympic Games had historically been chosen seven to eight years ahead of their celebration. Beginning with the 2024 and 2028 Olympics selection process in 2017, the IOC has proceeded to announce the winning bid with a longer lead-in time in order to provide time for the winning cities/regions to prepare.[300][301] The process of selection is carried out in two phases that span a two-year period. The prospective host city applies to its country's National Olympic Committee; if more than one city from the same country submits a proposal to its NOC, the national committee typically holds an internal selection, since only one city per NOC can be presented to the International Olympic Committee for consideration. Once the deadline for submission of proposals by the NOCs is reached, the first phase (Application) begins with the applicant cities asked to complete a questionnaire regarding several key criteria related to the organisation of the Olympic Games.[302] In this form, the applicants must give assurances that they will comply with the Olympic Charter and with any other regulations established by the IOC Executive Committee.[300] The evaluation of the filled questionnaires by a specialised group provides the IOC with an overview of each applicant's project and their potential to host the Games. On the basis of this technical evaluation, the IOC Executive Board selects the applicants that will proceed to the candidature stage.[302] Once the candidate cities are selected, they must submit to the IOC a bigger and more detailed presentation of their project as part of a candidature file. Each city is thoroughly analysed by an evaluation commission. This commission will also visit the candidate cities, interviewing local officials and inspecting prospective venue sites, and submit a report on its findings one month prior to the IOC's final decision. During the interview process the candidate city must also guarantee that it will be able to fund the Games.[300] After the work of the evaluation commission, a list of candidates is presented to the General Session of the IOC, which must assemble in a country that does not have a candidate city in the running. The IOC members gathered in the Session have the final vote on the host city. Once elected, the host city bid committee (together with the NOC of the respective country) signs a Host City Contract with the IOC, officially becoming an Olympic host nation and host city.[300] By 2032, the Olympic Games will have been hosted by 47 cities in 23 countries. As of 2021, since the 1988 Summer Olympics in Seoul, South Korea, the Olympics have been held in Asia or Oceania four times, a sharp increase compared to the previous 92 years of modern Olympic history. The 2016 Games in Rio de Janeiro were the first Olympics for a South American country. No bids from countries in Africa have succeeded, although Egypt (thrice) and South Africa (in 2004) have tried.[303] See also Olympic Games portal icon Modern history portal Sports portal All-time Olympic Games medal table Art competitions at the Summer Olympics List of multi-sport events Olympic Cup and Olympic Order Olympic Day Run Global Association of International Sports Federations Notes With English, French is the second official language of the Olympic Movement. However, Theodosius' decree contains no specific reference to Olympia.[33] The 1988 Winter Olympics were in Calgary, Canada, and the 1988 Winter Paralympics were in Innsbruck, Austria.[64] The IOC lists a French immigrant to the United States Albert Corey as a United States competitor for his marathon silver medal, but (together with four undisputed Americans) as part of a mixed team for the team race silver medal.[295][296] All three of Great Britain's athletes in 1904 were from Ireland, which at the time was part of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland. Despite the team being called Great Britain or Team GB, inhabitants of Northern Ireland (and formerly the whole of Ireland) are (or were) eligible to join.[297] Switzerland participated in the equestrian events of the 1956 Games held in Stockholm in June,[298] but did not attend the Games in Melbourne later that year.[299] References "Jeux Olympiques – Sports, Athlètes, Médailles, Rio 2016". 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Golden, Mark (2009). "Helpers, Horses, and Heroes". Greek Sport and Social Status. University of Texas Press. ISBN 978-0-292-71869-2. "All Games since 1896". International Olympic Committee. Retrieved 20 February 2013. Krüger, Arnd; Murray, William J. (2003). The Nazi Olympics: sport, politics and appeasem*nt in the 1930s. University of Illinois Press. ISBN 978-0-252-02815-1. Retrieved 3 July 2012. Maraniss, David (2008). Rome 1960. New York: Simon & Schuster. ISBN 978-1-4165-3407-5. Matthews, George R. (2005). America's first Olympics: the St. Louis games of 1904. University of Missouri Press. p. 53. ISBN 978-0-8262-1588-8. liverpool. "Olympic Charter" (PDF). International Olympic Committee. 2007. Archived from the original (PDF) on 23 July 2011. Retrieved 19 September 2012. Porterfield, Jason (2008). Doping:Athletes and Drugs. New York: Rosen Publishing Group. p. 15. ISBN 978-1-4042-1917-5. Richardson, N.J. (1992). "Panhellenic Cults and Panhellenic Poets". In Lewis, D.M.; Boardman, John; Davies, J.K. (eds.). The Fifth Century BC. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-521-23347-7. Retrieved 2 February 2013. Roche, Maurice (2000). Mega-Events and Modernity. New York: Routledge, Taylor & Francis Group. ISBN 978-0-415-15711-7. Retrieved 30 January 2009. Shachar, Ayelet (2011). "Picking Winners: Olympic Citizenship and the Global Race for Talent". Yale Law Journal. 120 (8): 2088–2139. Slack, Trevor (2004). The Commercialisation of sport. New York: Routledge. ISBN 978-0-7146-8078-1. Retrieved 31 March 2009. Swaddling, Judith (1999). The Ancient Olympic Games. University of Texas Press. ISBN 978-0-292-77751-4. Swaddling, Judith (2000). The Ancient Olympic Games (2 ed.). Austin: University of Texas Press. ISBN 978-0-292-70373-5. OCLC 10759486. Retrieved 6 June 2009. Tomlinson, Alan (2005). Sport and leisure cultures. Minneapolis MN: University of Minnesota Press. ISBN 978-0-8166-3382-1. Retrieved 2 April 2009. "Vancouver 2010 Mascots Introduced to the World". Canada Newswire. Vancouver Organizing Committee for the 2010 Olympic and Paralympic Winter Games. 27 November 2007. Archived from the original on 13 April 2014. Retrieved 10 March 2014. Weiler, Ingomar (2004). "The predecessors of the Olympic movement, and Pierre de Coubertin". European Review. 12 (3): 427–443. doi:10.1017/S1062798704000365. S2CID 145511333. Woods, Ron (2007). Social Issues in Sport. Champaign IL: Human Kinetics. p. 146. ISBN 978-0-7360-5872-8. Retrieved 2 April 2009. television ratings decline olympic games torino. Young, David C. (2004). "The Beginnings". A Brief History of the Olympic Games. Wiley-Blackwell. ISBN 978-1-4051-1130-0. Young, David C. (1996). The Modern Olympics: A Struggle for Revival. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press. ISBN 978-0-8018-7207-5. Further reading Boykoff, Jules (2016). Power Games: A Political History of the Olympics. New York and London: Verso. ISBN 978-1-784-78072-2. Buchanan, Ian (2001). Historical dictionary of the Olympic movement. Lanham: Scarecrow Presz. ISBN 978-0-8108-4054-6. Kamper, Erich; Mallon, Bill (1992). The Golden Book of the Olympic Games. Milan: Vallardi & Associati. ISBN 978-88-85202-35-1. Preuss, Holger; Marcia Semitiel García (2005). The Economics of Staging the Olympics: A Comparison of the Games 1972–2008. Edward Elgar Publishing. ISBN 978-1-84376-893-7. Sarantakes, Nicholas Evan. "The Olympics and the Cold War: A Historiography" Journal of Cold War Studies (Dec 2023), Vol.25, 127–158. doi: 10.1162/jcwsa01173 Simson, Vyv; Jennings, Andrew (1992). Dishonored Games: Corruption, Money, and Greed at the Olympics. New York: S.P.I. Books. ISBN 978-1-56171-199-4. Stromberg, Joseph (24 July 2012). "When the Olympics Gave Out Medals for Art (painters, sculptors, writers, musicians)". Smithsonian Magazine. Retrieved 4 October 2021. Wallechinsky, David (2004). The Complete Book of the Summer Olympics, Athens 2004 Edition. SportClassic Books. ISBN 978-1-894963-32-9. Wallechinsky, David (2005). The Complete Book of the Winter Olympics, Turin 2006 Edition. SportClassic Books. ISBN 978-1-894963-45-9. External links Olympic Games at Wikipedia's sister projects Definitions from Wiktionary Media from Commons News from Wikinews Quotations from Wikiquote Texts from Wikisource Textbooks from Wikibooks Resources from Wikiversity Travel information from Wikivoyage Official website Edit this at Wikidata "Olympic Games". Encyclopædia Britannica Online. 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Italy Rome 1964: Japan Tokyo 1968: Mexico Mexico City 1972: West Germany Munich 1976: Canada Montreal 1980: Soviet Union Moscow 1984: United States Los Angeles 1988: South Korea Seoul 1992: Spain Barcelona 1996: United States Atlanta 2000: Australia Sydney 2004: Greece Athens 2008: China Beijing 2012: United Kingdom London 2016: Brazil Rio de Janeiro 2020: Japan Tokyo[c3] 2024: France Paris 2028: United States Los Angeles 2032: Australia Brisbane [c1] Cancelled due to World War I; [c2] Cancelled due to World War II; [c3] Postponed to 2021 due to the COVID-19 pandemic vte Winter Olympic Games host cities 1924: France Chamonix 1928: Switzerland St. Moritz 1932: United States Lake Placid 1936: Germany Garmisch-Partenkirchen 1940: None[c1] 1944: None[c1] 1948: Switzerland St. Moritz 1952: Norway Oslo 1956: Italy Cortina d'Ampezzo 1960: United States Squaw Valley 1964: Austria Innsbruck 1968: France Grenoble 1972: Japan Sapporo 1976: Austria Innsbruck 1980: United States Lake Placid 1984: Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia Sarajevo 1988: Canada Calgary 1992: France Albertville 1994: Norway Lillehammer 1998: Japan Nagano 2002: United States Salt Lake City 2006: Italy Turin 2010: Canada Vancouver 2014: Russia Sochi 2018: South Korea Pyeongchang 2022: China Beijing 2026: Italy Milan and Cortina d'Ampezzo [c1] Cancelled due to World War II Olympic Games portal vte Multi-sport events Global Olympics Olympic Games SummerWinterYouth Olympic Games Parasports Paralympic Games SummerWinterDeaflympics SummerWinterDéfi sportifIBSA World GamesINAS Global GamesInvictus GamesWorld Dwarf GamesSpecial Olympics SummerWinterWorld Abilitysport Games Professions FIS Games2021 World Para Snow Sports ChampionshipsUCI Cycling World ChampionshipsInternational Army GamesLumberjack World ChampionshipWorld Air GamesMilitary World GamesWorld Police and Fire GamesWorld Firefighters Games Youth and students FISU World University Games (Universiade)World School Sport Games 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  • Condition: Used
  • Condition: In Good Condition for its age over 125 years old
  • Year: 1896
  • Signed: No
  • Country/Region of Manufacture: United Kingdom

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